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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Use of one-way gates by mule deer

Published source details

Reed D.F., Pojar T.M. & Woodard T.N. (1974) Use of one-way gates by mule deer. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 38, 9-15


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Install one-way gates or other structures to allow wildlife to leave roadways Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A replicated study in 1970–1972 in Colorado, USA (Reed et al. 1974) found that one-way gates allowed mule deer Odocoileush emionush emionus to escape when trapped along highways with barrier fencing. A total of 558 passages were recorded through eight gates, with 96% in the one-way direction designed. Use of each gate ranged from seven to 335 passages. Track counts indicated that the gates enabled approximately 223 deer to escape the highway. There were also 3,293 tracks counted of deer approaching gates heading towards the highway but not passing through. During 31 trails, three types of one-way gate were tested (two at a time) along a fence between a field with a mule deer and one with its food. The location and direction of each gate was changed frequently. Eight gates, of the most effective design, were installed in 2.4-m-high barrier fencing along a 1.5-mile section of highway. Passages were monitored using track counts and mechanical counters. Gates along the highway were checked daily during migrations in 1970–1972.

(Summarised by Rebecca K. Smith)