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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: "Green fire" returns to the Southwest: reintroduction of the Mexican wolf

Published source details

Parsons D.R. (1998) "Green fire" returns to the Southwest: reintroduction of the Mexican wolf. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 26, 799-807


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Provide supplementary food during/after release of captive-bred mammals Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A study in 1998 in a grassland, shrubland and forest reserve in Arizona, USA (Parsons 1998) found that most captive-bred Mexican wolves Canis lupus baileyi provided with supplementary food after being kept in holding pens and released in groups did not survive over eight months after release into the wild. Out of 11 captive-bred Mexican wolves released, six (55%) were illegally killed within eight months, three (27%) were returned to captivity and two (18%) survived in the wild for at least one year (long-term survival not reported). Three weeks after their release, three individuals from one family group killed an adult elk Cervus canadensis. Two females gave birth two months after release but only one pup survived. Eleven wolves in three family groups were released in March 1998. Before release, wolves were kept for two months in pre-release holding pens, where they were fed carcasses of native prey. Carcasses were provided as supplementary food for two months post-release when sufficient killing of prey was confirmed. The released wolves were fitted with radio-collars. No monitoring details are provided.

(Summarised by Ricardo Rocha)

Release translocated/captive-bred mammals in family/social groups Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A study in 1998 in a grassland, shrubland and forest reserve in Arizona, USA (Parsons 1998) found that most captive-bred Mexican wolves Canis lupus baileyi released in family groups (initially into holding pens and provided with supplementary food) did not survive over eight months after release into the wild. Out of 11 captive-bred Mexican wolves released, six (55%) were illegally killed within eight months, three (27%) were returned to captivity and two (18%) survived in the wild for at least one year. Three weeks after their release, three individuals from one family group killed an adult elk Cervus canadensis. Two females gave birth two months after release but only one pup survived. Eleven wolves in three family groups were released in March 1998. Before release, wolves were kept for two months in pre-release holding pens, where they were fed carcasses of native prey. Carcasses were provided as supplementary food for two months post-release when sufficient killing of prey was confirmed. The released wolves were fitted with radio-collars. No monitoring details are provided.

(Summarised by Ricardo Rocha)

Use holding pens at release site prior to release of captive-bred mammals Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A study in 1998 in a grassland, shrubland and forest reserve in Arizona, USA (Parsons 1998) found that most captive-bred Mexican wolves Canis lupus baileyi kept in holding pens prior to release in groups and provided with supplementary food did not survive over eight months after release into the wild. Out of 11 captive-bred Mexican wolves released, six (55%) were illegally killed within eight months, three (27%) were returned to captivity and two (18%) survived in the wild for at least one year (long term survival is not reported). Three weeks after their release, three individuals from one family group killed an adult elk Cervus canadensis. Two females gave birth two months after release but only one pup survived. Eleven wolves in three family groups were released in March 1998. Before release, wolves were kept for two months in pre-release holding pens, where they were fed carcasses of native prey. Carcasses were provided as supplementary food for two months post-release when sufficient killing of prey was confirmed. The released wolves were fitted with radio-collars. No monitoring details are provided.

(Summarised by Ricardo Rocha)