Effectiveness of fladry on wolves in captivity

  • Published source details Musiani M. & Visalberghi E. (2001) Effectiveness of fladry on wolves in captivity. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 29, 91-98.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Use flags to reduce predation of livestock by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict

Action Link
Terrestrial Mammal Conservation
  1. Use flags to reduce predation of livestock by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict

    A before-and-after study in 1998 of captive animals in Italy (Musiani & Visalberghi 2001) found that installing lines of flags (known as fladry) 50 cm high and ≤ 50 cm apart, deterred passage by gray wolves Canis lupus. Of 18 barrier designs trialled, four of five that were not crossed at all by two wolves involved lines of flags 50 cm high, with flags ≤50 cm apart. Three wolves in a larger enclosure made no crossings of a 50-cm-high flag line put in place to prevent access to one sixth, half and five sixths of the enclosure, even when the flag line split the enclosure in half with food placed at the opposite side. Flag lines comprised 50 × 10-cm red or grey flags. Two wolves, in a 120-m2 enclosure, regularly paced along a fenceline and barriers were set along this route. Three wolves, in an 850-m2 enclosure, were excluded from varying proportions by flag lines. In all trials, wolves were observed for 30 minutes before and 30 minutes after each flag line was installed.

    (Summarised by: Rebecca F. Schoonover)

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