Conservation Evidence strives to be as useful to conservationists as possible. Please take our survey to help the team improve our resource.

Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Preserving the natural status of grizzlies in Glacier National Park

Published source details

Martinka C.J. (1974) Preserving the natural status of grizzlies in Glacier National Park. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 2, 13-17


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Exclude or limit number of visitors to reserves or protected areas Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A before-and-after study in 1968–1972 in Montana, USA (Martinka 1974) found that temporarily restricting visitor access, along with translocation, awareness raising and enforcement of regulations, resulted in fewer bears being killed to protect humans. After restricting visitor access, the rate of bear killings (1/year) was lower than in the preceding 13 years, when there were no visitor restrictions (1.5/year). Following implementation of visitor restrictions, three bears were also translocated away for visitor safety reasons. In 1968–1972 visitor restrictions, such as temporary trail closures or campsite closures, were imposed following verified reports of human-bear encounters. Numbers of bears killed following restrictions was compared to that prior to implementation of restrictions. The programmme also included awareness raising and policing of adherence to local regulations.

(Summarised by Rebecca F. Schoonover)