Conservation Evidence strives to be as useful to conservationists as possible. Please take our survey to help the team improve our resource.

Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Wildlife crossing designs and use by Florida panthers and other wildlife in southwest Florida

Published source details

Land D. & Lotz M. (1996) Wildlife crossing designs and use by Florida panthers and other wildlife in southwest Florida. Proceedings of the Trends in Addressing Wildlife Mortality: Transportation Related Wildlife Mortality Seminar, FL-ER-58-96, Florida Department of Transportation,Tallahassee, Florida USA, 379-386.


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Install barrier fencing and underpasses along roads Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A replicated study in 1995 along two highways in Florida, USA (Land & Lotz 1996) found that large underpasses and box culverts, in areas with roadside fencing, were used by a range of mammal species. Mammals recorded using large underpasses were white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus (5.1 crossings/month), panther Felis concolor (2.2), bobcat Lynx rufus (1.3) and raccoon Procyon lotor (1.4). Box culverts were additionally used by red foxes Vulpes vulpes and otters Lontra canadensis. Two box culverts (2.4 m high, 7 m wide, 15 m long) were monitored along a 6.4-km section of a highway. Two of nine large underpasses (21–25 m wide, 49 m long) with vegetation were monitored along a 15-km section of a different highway. Highways had barrier fencing 3.4 m high with a 1-m overhang. Underpasses were monitored from March or April 1995 (end date not stated) using an infra-red digital counter and camera and by counting tracks.

(Summarised by Rebecca K. Smith)