Conservation Evidence strives to be as useful to conservationists as possible. Please take our survey to help the team improve our resource.

Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Passage through a small drainage culvert by mule deer, Odocoilus hemionus, and other mammals

Published source details

Krawchuk A., Larsen K.W., Weir R.D. & Davis H. (2005) Passage through a small drainage culvert by mule deer, Odocoilus hemionus, and other mammals. The Canadian Field-Naturalist, 119, 296-298


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Install tunnels/culverts/underpass under railways Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A study in 2003 of culverts under a railway and highway in British Columbia, Canada (Krawchuk et al. 2005) found that at least two of three underpasses were used by mammals. Mule deer Odocoileus hemionus were detected using one small culvert (2.1 m wide, 1.5 m high, 30 m long) six times. They were not recorded using a larger (7 m wide, 5 m high, 40 m long) cattle underpass though signs of their presence were noted nearby. Black bears were detected 20 times passing through the smaller culvert and four times through the cattle underpass. Raccoons were detected twice at the cattle underpass. The smaller culvert had a soil substrate, was surrounded by vegetation and was relatively far from human activity. The cattle underpass had limited surrounding natural vegetation. No mammals were recorded using a third culvert (1.2 m wide and high, 30 m long), possibly due to camera malfunction. Culverts and the underpass ran under both the Canadian Pacific Railway and Trans-Canada Highway. They were monitored using infrared sensor cameras during August–November 2003. Animal tracks or signs around camera stations were also recorded.

(Summarised by Rebecca K. Smith)

Install tunnels/culverts/underpass under roads Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A study in 2003 of a highway and railway in British Columbia, Canada (Krawchuk et al. 2005) found that at least two of three crossing structures were used by mammals. Mule deer Odocoileus hemionus were detected using one small culvert (2.1 m wide, 1.5 m high, 30 m long) six times. They were not recorded using a larger (7 m wide, 5 m high, 40 m long) cattle underpass though signs of their presence were noted nearby. Black bears were detected 20 times passing through the smaller culvert and four times through the cattle underpass. Raccoons were detected twice at the cattle underpass. The smaller culvert had a soil substrate, was surrounded by vegetation and was relatively far from human activity. The cattle underpass had limited surrounding natural vegetation. No mammals were recorded using a third culvert (1.2 m wide and high, 30 m long), possibly due to camera malfunction. Culverts and the underpass ran under both the Trans-Canada Highway and Canadian Pacific Railway. They were monitored using infrared sensor cameras during August–November 2003. Animal tracks or signs around camera stations were also recorded.

(Summarised by Rebecca K. Smith)