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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Survivorship of translocated kangaroo rats in the San Joaquin Valley, California

Published source details

Germano D.J. (2010) Survivorship of translocated kangaroo rats in the San Joaquin Valley, California. California Fish and Game, 96, 82-89


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Release translocated/captive-bred mammals at a specific time (e.g. season, day/night) Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A study in 2001 in a grassland and shrubland site in California, USA (Germano 2010) found that most translocated Tipton kangaroo rats Dipodomys nitratoides nitratoides and Heermann’s kangaroo rats Dipodomys heermanni ssp. released at dusk in artificial burrows supplied with food died within five days of release. All four Tipton kangaroo rats were predated within five days of translocation, and only one out of seven Heermann’s kangaroo rats survived over 45 days. Three Heermann’s kangaroo rats were predated, two died as a result of aggression from other kangaroo rats, and the fate of one was unknown. In September 2001, four juvenile Tipton kangaroo rats and three Heermann’s kangaroo rats were captured and held in captivity for two months before release at a protected site in November. In December 2001, a further four Heermann’s kangaroo rats were caught and translocated to the same site. All 11 animals were fitted with a radio-transmitter and ear tags, and monitored for seven days in captivity prior to release. The release site was already occupied by Heermann’s kangaroo rats. Animals were released into individual artificial burrows (two 90-cm-long cardboard tubes with a chamber about 30 cm below the surface), dug 10–15 m apart and provided with a paper towel and seeds. Burrows were plugged with paper towels until dusk. Animals were radio-tracked every 1–8 days for 18–45 days after release.

(Summarised by Ricardo Rocha)

Release translocated/captive-bred mammals into area with artificial refuges/breeding sites Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A study in 2001 in a grassland and shrubland site in California, USA (Germano 2010) found that most Tipton kangaroo rats Dipodomys nitratoides nitratoides and Heermann’s kangaroo rats Dipodomys heermanni ssp. translocated into artificial burrows provided with supplementary food died within five days of release. All four Tipton kangaroo rats were predated within five days of translocation, and only one out of seven Heermann’s kangaroo rats survived over 45 days. Three Heermann’s kangaroo rats were predated, two died as a result of aggression from other Heermann’s kangaroo rats, and the fate of one was unknown. In September 2001, four juvenile Tipton kangaroo rats and three Heermann’s kangaroo rats were captured and held in captivity for two months before release at a protected site in November. In December 2001, a further four Heermann’s kangaroo rats were caught and translocated to the same site. All 11 animals were fitted with a radio-transmitter and ear tags, and monitored for seven days in captivity prior to release. The release site was already occupied by Heermann’s kangaroo rats. Animals were released into individual artificial burrows (two 90-cm-long cardboard tubes with a chamber about 30 cm below the surface), dug 10–15 m apart and provided with seeds. Burrows were plugged with paper towels until dusk. Animals were radio-tracked every 1–8 days for 18–45 days after release.

(Summarised by Ricardo Rocha)

Provide supplementary food during/after release of translocated mammals Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A study in 2001 in a grassland and shrubland site in California, USA (Germano 2010) found that most translocated Tipton kangaroo rats Dipodomys nitratoides nitratoides and Heermann’s kangaroo rats Dipodomys heermanni ssp. provided with supplementary food within artificial burrows after release died within five days of release. All four Tipton kangaroo rats were predated within five days of translocation, and only one out of seven Heermann’s kangaroo rats survived over 45 days. Three Heermann’s kangaroo rats were predated, two died as a result of aggression from other Heermann’s kangaroo rats, and the fate of one was unknown. In September 2001, four juvenile Tipton kangaroo rats and three Heermann’s kangaroo rats were captured and held in captivity for two months before release at a protected site in November. In December 2001, a further four Heermann’s kangaroo rats were caught and translocated to the same site. All 11 animals were fitted with a radio-transmitter and ear tags, and monitored for seven days in captivity prior to release. The release site was already occupied by Heermann’s kangaroo rats. Animals were released into individual artificial burrows (two 90-cm-long cardboard tubes with a chamber about 30 cm below the surface), dug 10–15 m apart and provided with seeds. Burrows were plugged with paper towels until dusk. Animals were radio-tracked every 1–8 days for 18–45 days after release.

(Summarised by Ricardo Rocha)

Hold translocated mammals in captivity before release Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A study in 2001 in a grassland and shrubland site in California, USA (Germano 2010) found that most translocated Tipton kangaroo rats Dipodomys nitratoides nitratoides and Heermann’s kangaroo rats Dipodomys heermanni ssp. that were held in captivity prior to release died within five days of release. All four Tipton kangaroo rats were predated within five days of translocation, and only one of seven Heermann’s kangaroo rats survived over 45 days. Three Heermann’s kangaroo rats were predated, two died as a result of aggression from other Heermann’s kangaroo rats, and the fate of one was unknown. In September 2001, four juvenile Tipton kangaroo rats and three Heermann’s kangaroo rats were captured and held in captivity for two months before release at a protected site in November. In December 2001, a further four Heermann’s kangaroo rats were caught and translocated to the same site. All 11 animals were fitted with a radio-transmitter and ear tags, and monitored for seven days in captivity prior to release. The release site was already occupied by Heermann’s kangaroo rats. Animals were released into individual artificial burrows (two 90-cm-long cardboard tubes with a chamber about 30 cm below the surface), dug 10–15 m apart and provided with seeds. Burrows were plugged with paper towels until dusk. Animals were radio-tracked every 1–8 days for 18–45 days after release.

(Summarised by Ricardo Rocha)