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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Winter use of glyphosate-treated clearcuts by moose in Maine

Published source details

Eschholz W.E., Servello F.A., Griffith B., Raymond K.S. & Krohn W.B. (1996) Winter use of glyphosate-treated clearcuts by moose in Maine. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 60, 764-769


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Remove competing vegetation to allow tree establishment in clearcut areas Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A randomized, controlled, before-and-after study in 1991–1993 in a coniferous forest in Maine, USA (Eschholz et al. 1996) found that moose Alces alces did not use herbidice-treated forest clearcuts more than untreated clearcuts 1–2 years after treatment but foraging and sleeping signs were more numerous on treated than untreated clearcuts 7–11 years after treatment. Moose track quantity was similar between plots in the year before herbicide application (treatment plots: 0.07 track groups/ha; untreated: 0.08). One to two years after treatment, there were no significant differences in total number of track groups (treated: 1.6–3.0/km; untreated: 2.6–5.1), pellet groups (treated: 0.1–0.2/km; untreated: 0.2–0.4) or moose beds (treated: 0.03–0.05/km; untreated: 0.13–0.26), but there were fewer foraging tracks in treated plots (treated: 0.4 track groups/km; untreated: 1.0 tracks/km). After 7–11 years, there were more foraging tracks in treated (2.1–4.3/km) than untreated (1.1–1.8) plots and more moose beds (treated: 0.35–0.55/km; untreated: 0.12–0.31). There were no differences between treatments for total track groups (treated: 5.3–7.7/km; untreated: 3.4–4.2) or pellet groups (treated: 0.8–0.9/km; untreated: 0.4–0.5). Six of 12 clearcuts (18–89 ha), harvested 4.5–8.5 years previously, were herbicide-treated in August 1991. Six of 11 different clearcuts (21–73 ha) were glyphosate-treated 7–10 years before sampling. Treated plots in this second group averaged 19 years post-felling and, untreated plots, 16 years. Across all 23 plots, groups of moose foraging tracks and all tracks, moose beds and faecal pellet clumps were counted 5–7 times/year in January–March of 1992 and 1993, along 2-m-wide transects, 3–7 days after snowfall.

(Summarised by Nick Littlewood)