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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Wildlife water utilization and importance of artificial waterholes during dry season at Ruaha National Park, Tanzania

Published source details

Epaphras A.M., Gereta E., Lejora I.A., Ole M.G.E., Ng’umbi G., Kiwango Y., Mwangomo E., Semanini F., Vitalis L., Balozi J. & Mtahiko M.G.G. (2008) Wildlife water utilization and importance of artificial waterholes during dry season at Ruaha National Park, Tanzania. Wetlands Ecology and Management, 16, 183-188


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Provide artificial waterholes in dry season Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A site comparison study in 2006 in a national park comprising woodland and savanna in Tanzania (Epaphras et al. 2008) found that artificial waterholes were used by a similar number of large mammal species as was a natural waterhole. Results were not tested for statistical significance. The number of species recorded at artificial waterholes (4–5 species) was similar to the number at the natural waterhole (three). Average numbers of impala Aepyceros melampus were considerably higher at one artificial waterhole (64 impalas) than at the natural waterhole (9). Giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis numbers were also higher at one artificial waterhole (26 giraffes) than at the natural waterhole (8). Two artificial waterholes and one natural waterhole were monitored. Large mammal numbers were estimated, in November 2006, by counting footprints and droppings in three 100-m2 quadrats at each waterhole and by direct observation, for one day, from a vehicle.

(Summarised by Ricardo Rocha)