Individual study: An experimental evaluation of aversive conditioning for controlling coyote predation
Conover M.R., Francik J.G. & Miller D.E. (1977) An experimental evaluation of aversive conditioning for controlling coyote predation. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 41, 775-779
This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.
Use taste-aversion to reduce predation of livestock by mammals to deter human-wildlife conflict
A replicated study in 1975–1976 on captive animals (location not stated) (Conover et al. 1977) found that feeding dead chickens injected with lithium chloride to coyotes Canis latrans did not induce taste-aversive against taking live chickens. After eating dead chickens laced with lithium chloride (which causes gastrointestinal discomfort), two coyotes each killed and ate the single live chickens that they were offered. Three different coyotes between them killed and ate 25 of 31 live chickens offered. The five coyotes were offered 79 dead lithium chloride-laced chickens, from which 39 were uneaten, 23 were entirely eaten and 17 were partially eaten. Prior to lacing trials, each coyote was offered five live and five dead chickens (unlaced), all of which were eaten. Coyotes were then offered four to eight dead chickens, laced with lithium chloride. Following this, in daily trials, they were offered, in random order, a recently killed laced chicken or a live chicken. Two coyotes were offered single live chickens at this stage, and three were offered from three to nine live chickens each.
(Summarised by Nick Littlewood)