Testing potential repellents for mitigation of vehicle-induced mortality of wild ungulates in Ontario

  • Published source details Castiov F. (1999) Testing potential repellents for mitigation of vehicle-induced mortality of wild ungulates in Ontario. Masters MSc Degree Thesis. School of Graduate Studies and Research. Laurentian University, Ontario, Canada.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Use chemical repellents along roads or railways

Action Link
Terrestrial Mammal Conservation
  1. Use chemical repellents along roads or railways

    A replicated, controlled study in 1996–1998 in forest in Ontario, Canada (Castiov 1999) found that 18 scent repellents (trialled for potential to deter animals from roads) did not deter white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianris, elk Cervus canadensis nelsoni or moose Alces alces americana. Animals used a similar proportion of trails with repellents applied (63–80%) and of trails without repellents (62–74%). Similarly, at mineral licks with repellents, there were fresh animal tracks on 59% of days, which was not significantly different to the 72% of days at mineral licks without repellents. Eighteen potential repellents were identified (from literature review) and tested on wild deer or deer, elk and moose. Repellents were mainly chemicals, including commercial repellents (Deer Away powder, Critter Ridder, mothballs) and those that simulated predators (e.g. wolf, coyote) or humans (soap, hair, clothing, sweat), but also included wolf and human silhouettes. Use of pairs of trails through snow (up to 240 pairs) with head-height repellents or without repellents, were monitored by counting tracks in winter 1997 or 1998. Repellents were also tested at a mineral lick. Use of this was monitored by track counts and an infra-red camera on days with and without repellents, in summer 1997.

    (Summarised by: Rebecca K. Smith)

Output references
What Works 2021 cover

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 21

Go to the CE Journal

Discover more on our blog

Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.

Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape ProgrammeRed List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Mauritian Wildlife Supporting Conservation Leaders
Sustainability Dashboard National Biodiversity Network Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Bat Conservation InternationalPeople trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust