Conservation Evidence strives to be as useful to conservationists as possible. Please take our survey to help the team improve our resource.

Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Wildlife warning reflectors do not mitigate wildlife–vehicle collisions on roads

Published source details

Benten A., Hothorn T., Vor T. & Ammer C. (2018) Wildlife warning reflectors do not mitigate wildlife–vehicle collisions on roads. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 120, 64–73


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Install wildlife warning reflectors along roads Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A replicated, controlled study in 2014–2017 of 151 road sites in central Germany (Benten et al. 2018) found that four types of wildlife warning reflector did not reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions. The number of vehicle collisions was similar with and without four types of wildlife warning reflectors for three groups of mammals: deer (roe deer Capreolus capreolus, red deer Cervus elaphus, fallow deer Dama dama); wild boar Sus scrofa; and other mammals (badger Meles meles, red fox Vulpes vulpes, hare Lepus europaeus/rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus, wildcat Felis silvestris, racoon Procyon lotor). Data are reported as statistical model results. Three types of wildlife warning reflectors were installed along 151 stretches of road (average 2 km long): dark-blue reflectors (51 sites); light-blue reflectors (50 sites) and multi-coloured reflectors (50 sites). In addition, one type of reflector (transparent/silver) with an acoustic warning (1.5 second sounds triggered by vehicle headlights) was installed along a 200 m stretch of road at 10 of the 101 sites with blue reflectors. Reflectors were installed on posts (55–100 cm high) spaced 25–50 m apart. Wildlife-vehicle collisions reported to the police (1,984 in total) were analysed for 12 months with the reflectors installed and 12 months without in 2014–2017.

(Summarised by Anna Berthinussen)