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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Effectiveness of Hot Sauce® and Deer Away® repellents for deterring elk browsing of aspen sprouts

Published source details

Baker D.L., Andelt W.F., Burnham K.P. & Shepperd W.D. (1999) Effectiveness of Hot Sauce® and Deer Away® repellents for deterring elk browsing of aspen sprouts. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 63, 1327-1336


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Use repellents that taste bad (‘contact repellents’) to deter crop or property damage by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A replicated, controlled study in 1997 in a forest in Colorado, USA (Baker et al. 1999) found that aspens Populus tremuloides treated with the repellents Deer Away® and the highest concentration of Hot Sauce® were browsed less by elk Cervus canadensis than were untreated trees. There was less browsing on aspens treated with Deer Away® (42% of sprouts and terminal leaders browsed) and 6.2% Hot Sauce® (56% browsed) than on untreated aspens (77% browsed). Browsing rates on aspens treated with 0.62% Hot Sauce® (65%) and 0.062% Hot Sauce® (72%) did not differ significantly from those on untreated aspens. Four fenced pasture blocks (each 0.41 ha) each contained 10 strips (1 × 23 m) of sprouting aspen. Treatments were Deer Away® and Hot Sauce® at three concentrations (0.062%, 0.62%, 6.2%). Each treatment was applied to one strip in each pasture, five weeks before exposure to elk and to a further strip two weeks before exposure. Two strips remained untreated. Two captive elk were placed in each pasture block, from 3 August to 5 September 1997. Proportional browsing rates were assessed by examining all aspen sprouts in each pasture.

(Summarised by Nick Littlewood)