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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Carnivore conservation in practice: replicated management actions on a large spatial scale

Published source details

Angerbjorn A., Eide N.E., Dalén L., Elmhagen B., Hellström P., Ims R.A., Killengreen S., Landa A., Meijer T., Mela M., Niemimaa J., Norén K., Tannerfeldt M., Yoccoz N.G. & Henttonen H. (2013) Carnivore conservation in practice: replicated management actions on a large spatial scale. Journal of Applied Ecology, 50, 59-67


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Remove or control competitors Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A replicated, controlled study in 1999–2011 at 10 tundra sites in Norway and Sweden (Angerbjörn et al. 2013) found that the number of arctic fox Vulpes lagopus litters increased after control of red foxes Vulpes vulpes, along with supplementary winter feeding at arctic fox dens. Where red foxes were intensively controlled, the number of active artic fox dens in winter increased more than at sites where no control or a low level of control was undertaken (data reported as statistical model results). The same response was found in the number of arctic fox litters produced, and with more litters produced when food was provided at den sites (data reported as statistical model results). Three sites were intensive control sites, with an average of 19–92 red foxes culled, and supplementary feeding provided for an average of 11–13.5 arctic fox dens at two of those sites. Three sites had low levels of control, with 1.5–7 red foxes culled and 1–3 dens fed at each of those sites. Four sites had no fox control and only one den was fed at one site. Red foxes were controlled during winter from 1999. The number of arctic fox litters was counted in known arctic fox dens during July and August 1999–2011.

(Summarised by Ricardo Rocha)

Provide supplementary food to increase reproduction/survival Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A replicated, controlled study in 1999–2011 in 10 tundra sites in Norway and Sweden (Angerbjörn et al. 2013) found that the number of artic fox Vulpes lagopus litters increased after supplementary winter feeding at den sites, along with control of red foxes Vulpes vulpes. At two sites where an average of 11–13.5 dens were fed, both the number of active arctic fox dens in winter, and the number of litters produced in summer, increased more than at sites where no feeding or a low level of feeding was undertaken (data reported as statistical model results). During winter 1999–2011, commercial dog food or remains from slaughtered reindeer Rangifer tarandus was provided to a large number of arctic fox dens (11–13.5) at two sites, where red foxes were also intensively culled in winter. At four other sites, low numbers of arctic fox dens (1–3) were provided with food, and low numbers of red foxes were culled (0–7). At the remaining four sites, no food was provided and no red foxes were culled (3 sites) or intensive culling was conducted (92 animals, 1 site). The number of arctic fox litters was counted in known arctic fox dens during July and August 1999–2011.

(Summarised by Ricardo Rocha)