Conservation Evidence strives to be as useful to conservationists as possible. Please take our survey to help the team improve our resource.

Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Surveys of the epibenthos of the Crouch Estuary (UK) in relation to TBT contamination

Published source details

Rees H.L., Waldock R., Matthiessen P. & Pendle M.A. (1999) Surveys of the epibenthos of the Crouch Estuary (UK) in relation to TBT contamination. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 79, 209-223


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Restrict the use of tributyltin or other toxic antifouling coatings Subtidal Benthic Invertebrate Conservation

A replicated, before-and-after study in 1987–1992 of seven coarse seabed sites along the River Crouch estuary, southeast England, UK (Rees et al. 1999– same experimental set-up as Waldock et al. 1999) found that after restricting the use of tributyltin (TBT), overall epifaunal invertebrate (living on the seabed) community composition changed over five years, but the direction of change varied with site location. In four upper-estuary sites, overall invertebrate community composition changed over the five years, in a similar direction. In three lower-estuary sites, overall invertebrate community composition changed over the five years, without displaying a directional trend. Data were reported as graphical analyses, but not statistically tested. The use of antifouling ship paints containing TBT was restricted in 1987 in the UK. Annually in 1987–1989 and 1992, epifaunal invertebrates were surveyed at seven sites along a 23 km axis of the river. One to three sediment samples/year/site were collected using a trawl towed over 250 m, epifaunal invertebrates (> 5 mm) were identified and counted.

(Summarised by Anaëlle Lemasson)