Study

Indirect effects of protection from exploitation: patterns from populations of Evechinus chloroticus (Echinoidea) in northeastern New Zealand

  • Published source details Cole R. & Keuskamp D. (1998) Indirect effects of protection from exploitation: patterns from populations of Evechinus chloroticus (Echinoidea) in northeastern New Zealand. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 173, 215-226.

Actions

This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Designate a Marine Protected Area and prohibit all types of fishing

Action Link
Subtidal Benthic Invertebrate Conservation

Cease or prohibit all types of fishing in a marine protected area

Action Link
Marine Fish Conservation
  1. Designate a Marine Protected Area and prohibit all types of fishing

    A paired, site comparison study in 1992–1997 of six coralline seabed areas in the South Pacific Ocean, northeastern New Zealand (Cole & Keuskamp 1998) found that inside marine protected areas prohibiting all fishing for more than 10 years Kina sea urchins Evechinus chloroticus tended to be heavier compared to adjacent fished areas, but that all areas appeared to have similar urchin abundance. Results were not statistically tested. Sea urchins tended to be heavier inside protected areas (average 54 g), compared to fished areas (40 g). Sea urchin abundance varied between 1 to 4 urchin/m2 in protected areas, and 1 to 7 urchin/m2 in fished areas. Three marine protected areas prohibiting all exploitation (assumed to include all fishing) and three paired adjacent fished areas were sampled between 1992 and 1997 (4–5 sites/area; 5–10 m depth). Divers counted all urchins in twenty 1 m2 quadrats and measured the diameter of at least 60 urchins. In one protected and one fished area, the skeletons of ten sea urchins (55–65 mm diameter)/site were wet-weighed.

    (Summarised by: Anaëlle Lemasson)

  2. Cease or prohibit all types of fishing in a marine protected area

    A replicated, site comparison study in 1997 of two areas of coralline flats in the Pacific Ocean, northern New Zealand (Cole & Keuskamp 1998) found that protected areas where all fishing is prohibited had a higher overall density of fish that feed on urchins Evechinus chloroticus, and they were larger, compared to adjacent fished areas after 22 years. Data were not tested statistically. The total number of urchin-eating fish was greater in no-fishing areas (161) than fished (76) and they were of larger sizes (data presented as length frequencies). Individually, the densities of four of the eight species were higher in non-fished areas, one was the same and three had very low densities in both areas (see paper for individual data). In December 1997, eight potential fish predators of sea urchins were surveyed by underwater visual census (10 replicates of 25 × 5 m transects) at five sites in Cape Rodney-Okakari Point Marine Reserve (no-take since 1975) and five fished sites in an adjacent area.

    (Summarised by: Khatija Alliji)

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