Contrafreeloading in maned wolves: implications for their management and welfare

  • Published source details Vasconcellos A.S., Adania C.H. & Ades C. (2012) Contrafreeloading in maned wolves: implications for their management and welfare. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 140, 85-91.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Carnivores: Scatter food around enclosure

Action Link
Management of Captive Animals
  1. Carnivores: Scatter food around enclosure

    A replicated study in 2012 of maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus in a zoo in Brazil found that when given a choice, the wolves spent more time in the section of their enclosure with scattered food compared to the section with food on a tray (mean values not reported). There was no difference between the number of times the wolves chose to enter the scattered or tray section at the start of each session. There were no differences in intake between scattered and tray sections between pairs or throughout the months. Prior to the study, eight maned wolves housed in mixed sex pairs were fed mixed fruit and mixed meats once a day. Sixteen 30-minute videotaped sessions were conducted over four months. The enclosures comprised of a starting compartment, a choice area and a scattered and tray section. Tray and scattered food conditions were alternated on each side of the enclosure. The section chosen at the beginning, the time spent in each area, the number of shifts between sections and the intake of both animals were all recorded.

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