Individual study: Environmental enrichment for maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus): group and individual effects
Vasconcellos A.S., Guimarães M., Oliveira C.A.d., Pizzutto C.S. & Ades C. (2009) Environmental enrichment for maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus): group and individual effects. Animal Welfare, 18, 289-300
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Carnivores: Scatter food around enclosure
A replicated, before-and-after study in 2003 of maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus in three zoos in Brazil found that scattering food throughout the enclosure increased locomotory behaviour in the observation period immediately following feeding compared to food provided on trays (mean values not reported). There were also significant individual differences between scattered food and food on trays in foraging, aggression, resting and ‘out of view’. However, these differences were not consistent for all wolves. There was no difference in faecal glucocorticoid metabolites or pacing between feeding conditions. Eleven maned wolves were housed in pairs except for one individual. The wolves were fed once daily with mixed fruit and mixed meat. In the baseline condition food was placed in trays whereas in the scattered food condition half the regular diet was provided on a tray and the rest hidden in 12 locations. Instantaneous focal sampling every 30 seconds was used for 20-minutes per individual for five periods per day.