Individual study: Thermal tolerance limits and effects of temperature on the growth and development of the green toad, Bufotes viridis
Derakhshan Z. & Nokhbatolfoghahai M. (2015) Thermal tolerance limits and effects of temperature on the growth and development of the green toad, Bufotes viridis. Salamandra, 51, 129-136
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Amphibians: Manipulate temperature of enclosure to improve development or survival to adulthood
A replicated study in 2014 in Shiraz, Iran found that developing eggs of green frog Bufotes viridis had higher survival rates, higher growth rates and lower abnormalities when reared in temperatures from 12 to 25°C, than those reared outside this range. Survival at different temperatures was as follows: 0°C = 50%, 2°C = 60%, 8°C = 75%, 12-25°C = 95-100%, 30°C = 75%, 33°C = 65%, 37°C = 50%, 40°C = 0%. Embryos developing at different temperatures (8, 15, 18, 25, and 30°C) showed a significant difference in the time required to reach development stage 25. At 8°C, eggs had developed to stage 25 after 280 hours, but after only 52 hours at 30°C. In a separate experiment, eggs reared at 0°C and 40°C exhibited no development and no embryos survived. A thermostat-controlled aquarium housed 18 chambers, starting with 150 eggs each, across a temperature gradient with a heater at one end and a chilling unit at the other.