Individual study: Variability in survival, growth and metamorphosis in the larval fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra): effects of larval birth size, sibship and environment.
Alcobendas M., Buckley D. & Tejedo M. (2004) Variability in survival, growth and metamorphosis in the larval fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra): effects of larval birth size, sibship and environment. Herpetologica, 60, 232-245
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Amphibians: Manipulate temperature of enclosure to improve development or survival to adulthood
A replicated study in 1994-2004 in Spain found that larvae of fire salamanders Salamandra salamandra had higher survival rates with a low temperature and food three times per week compared to a higher temperature and food three times or once per week. No larvae on a high temperature-low food frequency treatment survived to metamorphosis. Larvae on high temperature-high food frequency diets had a significantly lower survival (72%) than those on low temperature-high food frequency treatment (98%) and low temperature-low food frequency treatment (98%). Recently born larvae were kept at one of two temperature treatments, 20–25°C (high temperature) or 15–18°C (low temperature) under a 12h:12h light-dark regime. Larvae were fed to near satiation either once a week (low food frequency) or three times a week (high food frequency) with frozen chironomid worms. This schedule defined four treatments: high temperature-high food, high temperature-low food, low temperature- high food, and low temperature-low food.