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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Implementation of a management system for wild pheasants Phasianus colchicus is beneficial to passerine birds on farmland at Loddington, Leicestershire, England

Published source details

Stoate C. (2002) Multifunctional use of a natural resource on farmland: wild pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) management and the conservation of farmland birds. Biodiversity and Conservation, 11, 561-573


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Manage hedges to benefit birds Bird Conservation

A small replicated controlled study from May-June in 1992-8 in Leicestershire, England (Stoate 2002), found that the abundance of nationally declining songbirds and species of conservation concern significantly increased on a 3 km2 site where hedges were managed to benefit wildlife (alongside several other interventions), although there was no overall difference in bird abundance, species richness or diversity between the experimental and three control sites. Numbers of nationally declining species rose by 102% (except for Eurasian skylark Alauda arvensis and yellowhammer Emberiza citronella). Nationally stable species rose (insignificantly) by 47% (eight species increased, four decreased). The other interventions employed were: ‘Create beetle banks’, ‘Plant nectar flower mixture/wildflower strips’, ‘Plant wild bird seed cover strips’, ‘Provide supplementary food’, ‘Control predators’ and ‘Reduce pesticide or herbicide use generally’.

Reduce pesticide or herbicide use generally Bird Conservation

A small replicated controlled study from May-June in 1992-8 in Leicestershire, England (Stoate 2002), found that the abundance of nationally declining songbirds and species of conservation concern significantly increased on a 3 km2 site where pesticide use was restricted (alongside several other interventions), although there was no overall difference in bird abundance, species richness or diversity between the experimental and three control sites. Numbers of nationally declining species rose by 102% (except for Eurasian skylark Alauda arvensis and yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella). Nationally stable species rose (insignificantly) by 47% (eight species increased, four decreased). The other interventions employed were: ‘Manage hedges to benefit wildlife’, ‘Plant wild bird seed cover strips’, ‘Provide supplementary food’, ‘Control predators’ and ‘Create beetle banks’.

 

Create beetle banks Bird Conservation

A small replicated study from May-June in 1992-8 in Leicestershire, England (Stoate 2002), found that the abundance of nationally declining songbirds and species of conservation concern significantly increased on a 3 km2 site where beetle banks were created (alongside several other interventions), although there was no overall difference in bird abundance, species richness or diversity between the experimental and three control sites. Numbers of nationally declining species rose by 102% (except for Eurasian skylark Alauda arvensis and yellowhammer Emberiza citronella). Nationally stable species rose (insignificantly) by 47% (eight species increased, four decreased). The other interventions employed were: ‘Manage hedges to benefit wildlife’, ‘Plant nectar flower mixture/wildflower strips’, ‘Plant wild bird seed cover strips’, ‘Provide supplementary food’, ‘Control predators’ and ‘Reduce pesticide or herbicide use generally’.

 

Control predators not on islands for songbirds Bird Conservation

A small replicated, controlled study from May-June in 1992-1998 in 1 experimental (3 km²) and four unmanaged arable farms in Leicestershire, England (Stoate 2002) found that the abundance of nationally declining songbird species and species of conservation concern significantly increased through time in the sites at which predators were controlled. Although there was no overall difference in bird abundance, species richness or diversity between the experimental and control sites, numbers of nationally declining species rose by 102% (except for skylark Alauda arvensis and yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella). Nationally stable species rose (insignificantly) by 47% (with 8 species exhibiting net increases, especially greenfinch Carduelis chloris 68%, and 4 species exhibiting net decreases). The author concluded that controlling nest predators (from April-July each year), as part of an integrated management package, provided the greatest benefits to species of conservation concern, but did not affect species diversity at the farm scale.

 

Control predatory mammals and birds (foxes, crows, stoats and weasels) Farmland Conservation

A small replicated, controlled study from May-June 1992-1998 in Leicestershire, England (Stoate 2002) (partly the same study as (Stoate & Szczur 2001) and extended in (White et al. 2008)) found that the abundance of nationally declining songbird species and species of conservation concern significantly increased over time on a 3 km2 site where predators were controlled. However there was no overall difference in bird abundance, species richness or diversity between the experimental and control sites. Numbers of nationally declining species rose by 102% (except for Eurasian skylark Alauda arvensis and yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella). Nationally stable species rose (insignificantly) by 47% (eight species increased, four decreased). The other interventions employed at the same site were: managing hedges, wild bird cover strips, beetle banks, supplementary feeding, and reducing chemical inputs generally.

 

Plant wild bird seed or cover mixture Bird Conservation

A small replicated controlled study from May-June in 1992-98 in Leicestershire, England (Stoate 2002), found that the abundance of nationally declining songbirds and species of conservation concern significantly increased on a 3 km2 site where 20 m wide mid-field and field-edge strips were planted with game cover crops (alongside several other interventions), although there was no overall difference in bird abundance, species richness or diversity between the experimental and three control sites. Numbers of nationally declining species rose by 102% (except for Eurasian skylark and yellowhammer). Nationally stable species rose (insignificantly) by 47% (eight species increased, four decreased). The other interventions employed were: ‘Manage hedges to benefit wildlife’, ‘Create beetle banks’, ‘Provide supplementary food’, ‘Control predators’ and ‘Reduce pesticide or herbicide use generally’.

 

Provide supplementary food for birds or mammals Farmland Conservation

A small replicated controlled study from May-June 1992-1998 in Leicestershire, UK (Stoate 2002), found that the abundance of nationally declining songbirds and species of conservation concern significantly increased on a 3 km2 site where supplementary food was provided from hoppers and by hand (alongside several other interventions). However there was no overall difference in bird abundance, species richness or diversity between the experimental and three control sites. Numbers of nationally declining species rose by 102% (except for Eurasian skylark Alauda arvensis and yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella). Nationally stable species rose (insignificantly) by 47% (eight species increased, four decreased). The other interventions employed at the same site were managing hedges, beetle banks, wild bird seed cover strips, predator control and reducing chemical inputs generally.

 

Plant wild bird seed or cover mixture Farmland Conservation

A small replicated controlled study from May-June 1992-1998 in Leicestershire, UK (Stoate 2002) found that the abundance of nationally declining songbirds and species of conservation concern significantly increased on a 3 km2 site where 20 m-wide mid-field and field-edge strips were planted with game cover crops (alongside several other interventions). However, there was no overall difference in bird abundance, species richness or diversity between the experimental and three control sites. Numbers of nationally declining species rose by 102% (except for Eurasian skylark Alauda arvensis and yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella). Nationally stable species rose (insignificantly) by 47% (eight species increased, four decreased). The other interventions employed at the same site were managing hedges, beetle banks, supplementary feeding, predator control and reducing chemical inputs generally.

 

Manage hedgerows to benefit wildlife (includes no spray, gap-filling and laying) Farmland Conservation

A small replicated, controlled study from May-June in 1992-1998 in one experimental area with managed hedges (3 km²) and four conventionally managed arable farms in Leicestershire, England (Stoate 2002) found that the abundance of nationally declining songbird species and species of conservation concern significantly increased through time in the site with managed hedges. Although there was no overall difference in bird abundance, species richness or diversity between the experimental and control sites, numbers of nationally declining species rose by 102 % (except for Eurasian skylark Alauda arvensis and yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella). Nationally stable species rose (insignificantly) by 47 % (with eight species exhibiting net increases, especially greenfinch Carduelis chloris 68%, and four species exhibiting net decreases). The author concluded that managing hedges to increase shrubby vegetation, as part of an integrated management package, provides the greatest benefits to species of conservation concern but does not affect species diversity at the farm scale.

Create beetle banks Farmland Conservation

A small replicated controlled study from May-June 1992-1998 in Leicestershire, UK (Stoate 2002) found that the abundance of nationally declining songbirds and bird species of conservation concern significantly increased on a 3 km2 site where beetle banks were created (alongside several other interventions), although there was no overall difference in bird abundance, species richness or diversity between the experimental and three control sites. Numbers of nationally declining species rose by 102% (except for Eurasian skylark Alauda arvensis and yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella). Nationally stable species rose (insignificantly) by 47% (eight species increased, four decreased). The other interventions employed at the same site were managing hedges, wild bird cover strips, supplementary feeding, predator control and reducing chemical inputs generally.

 

Provide supplementary food for songbirds to increase adult survival Bird Conservation

A replicated, controlled study from May-June in 1992-1998 in one experimental (3 km²) and four unmanaged arable farms in Leicestershire, England (Stoate 2002) found that the abundance of nationally declining songbird species and species of conservation concern significantly increased through time in the site where supplementary food was provided. Although there was no overall difference in bird abundance, species richness or diversity between the experimental and control sites, numbers of nationally declining species rose by 102% (except for Eurasian skylark Alauda arvensis and yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella). Nationally stable species rose (non-significantly) by 47% (with 8 species exhibiting net increases, especially greenfinch Carduelis chloris 68%, and 4 species exhibiting net decreases). The author concludes that supplementing food (grain provided through winter across the farm), as part of an integrated management package, provides the greatest benefits to species of conservation concern but does not affect species diversity at the farm scale.

 

Reduce fertilizer, pesticide or herbicide use generally Farmland Conservation

A small replicated controlled study from May-June 1992-1998 in Leicestershire, UK (Stoate 2002) found that the abundance of nationally declining songbirds and species of conservation concern significantly increased on a 3 km2 site where pesticide use was restricted (alongside several other interventions), although there was no overall difference in bird abundance, species richness or diversity between the experimental and three control sites. Numbers of nationally declining species rose by 102% (except for Eurasian skylark Alauda arvensis and yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella). Nationally stable species rose (insignificantly) by 47% (eight species increased, four decreased).