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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Re-establishment of a Sphagnum dominated flora on mined bogs

Published source details

Money R.P. (1995) Re-establishment of a Sphagnum dominated flora on cut-over lowland raised bogs. Pages 405-422 in: B.D. Wheeler, S.C. Shaw, W.J. Fojt & R.A. Robertson (eds.) Restoration of Temperate Wetlands. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Chichester.


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Add mosses to peatland surface Peatland Conservation

A before-and-after study in 1991–1993 in a historically mined raised bog in England, UK (Money 1995) reported that most Sphagnum moss species did not survive when sown onto peat or into pools, but that the surviving species typically spread. Of eight Sphagnum species spread onto bare peat, only one survived after 30 months: feathery bog moss Sphagnum cuspidatum. There were 20 plants/100 cm2. Of eight Sphagnum species spread onto floating rafts, three survived: feathery bog moss, recurved bog moss Sphagnum recurvum and lobed bog moss Sphagnum auriculatum. There were 25–40 plants/100 cm2. Two species had spread beyond the initial planted area. In May 1991, pairs of pools (4 m3) and bare peat plots (4 m2) were excavated (number of pools/plots not reported). Individual Sphagnum plants (5 cm long) were placed on the bare peat and on a floating mesh raft (50 plants in a 0.5 m2 area for each species). In November 1993, survival and density of each Sphagnum species were recorded.

(Summarised by Nigel Taylor)

Add inorganic fertilizer (before/after planting) Peatland Conservation

A controlled, before-and-after study in 1991 in a historically mined raised bog in England, UK (Money 1995) found that fertilization increased growth of planted Sphagnum mosses in three of four cases. In pools with no other intervention, both Sphagnum species grew faster when fertilized than when not fertilized (feathery bog moss Sphagnum cuspidatum 30% faster and recurved bog moss Sphagnum recurvum 85% faster). Amongst limed pools, only feathery bog moss grew faster (35%) when fertilized. In limed pools, fertilizer had no effect on recurved bog moss growth. In 1991, individual Sphagnum plants (cut to 5 cm length) were submerged (30 cm deep) in 4 m3 pools dug in the bog (number of plants and pools not reported). After 10 days, four treatments were applied: fertilization and liming, fertilization only, liming only, or none. Fertilized pools received 30 g sodium phosphate. Limed pools received 80g calcium carbonate. The length of all plants was measured after 20 weeks.

(Summarised by Nigel Taylor)

Add lime (before/after planting) Peatland Conservation

A controlled, before-and-after study in 1991 in a historically mined raised bog in England, UK (Money 1995) found that liming reduced growth of one planted Sphagnum species and had no effect on another. The growth rate of recurved bog moss Sphagnum recurvum was 12–50% lower in limed pools than in unlimed pools. The effect of liming was especially strong in pools that were also fertilized. The growth rate of feathery bog moss Sphagnum cuspidatum was not significantly lower (only 4–8% less) in limed pools than in unlimed pools. In 1991, individual Sphagnum plants (cut to 5 cm length) were submerged (30 cm deep) in 4 m3 pools dug in the bog (number of plants and pools not reported). After 10 days, four treatments were applied: lime with fertilizer, liming only, fertilization only, or none. Limed pools received 80g calcium carbonate. Fertilized pools received 30 g sodium phosphate. The length of all plants was measured after 20 weeks.

(Summarised by Nigel Taylor)

Directly plant peatland mosses Peatland Conservation

A before-and-after study in 1991 in a historically mined raised bog in England, UK (Money 1995) reported that planted Sphagnum moss grew within bog pools. Over the first 20 weeks after planting, feathery bog moss Sphagnum cuspidatum plants had grown by 10–15% per week. Recurved bog moss Sphagnum recurvum plants had grown by 6–13% per week. Growth of both species was affected by liming (see Section 14.1) and fertilization (see Section 14.2). In 1991, individual Sphagnum plants (cut to 5 cm length) were submerged (30 cm deep) in 4 m3 pools dug in the bog (number of plants and pools not reported). After 10 days, some pools were limed, fertilized or limed and fertilized. After 20 weeks, the length of all plants was measured.

(Summarised by Nigel Taylor)