Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Compassionate conservation, rehabilitation and translocation of Indonesian slow lorises

Published source details

Moore R.S., Wihermanto S. & Nekaris K.A.I. (2014) Compassionate conservation, rehabilitation and translocation of Indonesian slow lorises. Endangered Species Research, 26, 93-102


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Detect & report dead primates and clinically determine their cause of death to avoid disease transmission Primate Conservation

A before-and-after trial in 2006-2011 in tropical forest at Gunung Halimun Salak National Park and Batutegi Nature Reserve, Indonesia found that only few reintroduced Javan slow lorises Nycticebus javanicus and greater slow lorises N. coucang survived for at least 146 and 22-382 days, respectively, when dead individuals were examined to determine their cause of death along with other interventions. Out of five reintroduced greater slow lorises, only one survived for at least 146 days and out of 18 reintroduced Javan slow lorises only five individuals (28%) survived for at least 22-382 days. The study did not report more details about survival time. Two Javan slow lorises died of septicemia, one of electrocution and three of unknown causes. Three greater slow lorises were killed by predators and one died of unknown causes. All lorises underwent quarantine and veterinary screens prior to single releases. Sick individuals were recaptured and treated. All but two lorises were held in enclosures at the release site to adapt to local habitat where conspecifics and predators occurred. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Implement quarantine for primates before reintroduction/translocation Primate Conservation

A before-and-after trial in 2006-2011 in tropical forest at Gunung Halimun Salak National Park and Batutegi Nature Reserve, Indonesia found that only few reintroduced greater slow lorises Nycticebus coucang and Javan slow lorises N. javanicus that were quarantined prior to release alongside other interventions, survived for at least 146 and 22-382 days, respectively. Out of five reintroduced greater slow lorises, only one survived over 146 days and out of 18 reintroduced Javan slow lorises, only five individuals (28%) survived for at least 22-382 days. The study did not report more details about their fate. All lorises were quarantined for six weeks and underwent veterinary screens prior to single releases. Sick individuals were recaptured and treated. All but two lorises were held in enclosures at the release site to adapt to local habitat, where conspecifics and predators occurred. Dead lorises were examined to determine cause of death. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Reintroduce primates as single/multiple individuals Primate Conservation

A before-and-after trial in 2006-2011 in tropical forest in Indonesia found that few reintroduced Javan slow lorises Nycticebus javanicus and greater slow lorises N. coucang that were released as single individuals, along with other interventions, survived for at least 146 and 22-382 days, respectively. One of five reintroduced greater slow lorises survived for at least 146 days and five of 18 reintroduced Javan slow lorises individuals survived for at least 22-382 days. Before release, lorises underwent quarantine and veterinary screens. Sick individuals were recaptured and treated. All but two lorises were held in enclosures at the release site to adapt to local habitat where resident lorises and predators occurred. Bodies of dead lorises were examined to determine their cause of death. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Reintroduce primates into habitat with predators Primate Conservation

A before-and-after trial in 2006–2011 in tropical forest at Gunung Halimun Salak National Park and Batutegi Nature Reserve, Indonesia found that few reintroduced Javan slow lorises Nycticebus javanicus and greater slow lorises N. coucang that were released into habitat with predators along with other interventions, survived for at least 146 and 22-382 days, respectively. One of five reintroduced greater slow lorises survived for at least 146 days and five of 18 reintroduced Javan slow lorises, survived for at least 22-382 days. Three greater slow lorises were killed by predators. Before release, lorises underwent quarantine and veterinary screens. Sick individuals were recaptured and treated. Twenty-one lorises were held in enclosures at the release site to adapt to local habitat where wild individuals occurred. Bodies of dead lorises were examined to determine their cause of death. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Treat sick/injured animals Primate Conservation

A before-and-after study in 2006-2011 in tropical forest at Gunung Halimun Salak National Park and Batutegi Nature Reserve, Indonesia found that only few reintroduced greater slow lorises Nycticebus coucang and Javan slow lorises N. javanicus that were treated when sick alongside other interventions, survived for at least 146 and 22-382 days, respectively. Out of five reintroduced greater slow lorises, only one survived for at least 146 days and out of 18 reintroduced Javan slow lorises, five individuals (28%) survived for at least 22-382 days. Exact survival time was not provided. One Javan slow loris was recaptured and remained at a sanctuary after its arm was amputated. All lorises underwent quarantine and veterinary screens prior to single releases. All but two lorises were held in enclosures at the release site to adapt to local habitat conditions where conspecifics and predators occurred. Bodies of dead lorises were examined to determine their cause of death. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Reintroduce primates into habitat where the species is present Primate Conservation

A before-and-after trial in 2006–2011 in tropical forest in Indonesia found that very few reintroduced Javan slow lorises Nycticebus javanicus and greater slow lorises N. coucang that were released into habitat with resident lorises along with other interventions, survived for at least 146 and 22-382 days, respectively. Out of five reintroduced greater slow lorises, one survived for at least 146 days and out of 18 reintroduced Javan slow lorises, five individuals (28%) survived for at least 22–382 days. No interaction with wild lorises was reported. Before being released individually lorises were quarantined and screened by vets. Sick individuals were recaptured and treated. Twenty-one lorises were held in enclosures at the release site to adapt to local habitat where predators occurred. Bodies of dead lorises were examined to determine their cause of death. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Allow primates to adapt to local habitat conditions for some time before introduction to the wild Primate Conservation

A before-and-after trial in 2006-2011 in tropical forest at Gunung Halimun Salak National Park and Batutegi Nature Reserve, Indonesia found that using a large habituation cage increased the probability of survival of translocated Javan slow lorises Nycticebus javanicus, but not of greater slow lorises Nycticebus coucang. The size of the cage influenced survival success, with longer survival for individuals that had access to larger habituation cages. Cage size was differentiated into ‘small’ and ‘large’ cages, where the latter consisted of 50 m perimeter open-top enclosures that were situated at the release site. Time allowed to acclimatize varied from four to 123 days and had no effect on survival.