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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Netleaf hackberry seeds planted near boulders in the foothills of the Wasatch Mountains: germination, survival, and patterns of establishment

Published source details

Stevens M.T., Holland D.L. & Tanner N.V. (2016) Netleaf hackberry seeds planted near boulders in the foothills of the Wasatch Mountains: germination, survival, and patterns of establishment. Western North American Naturalist, 76, 452-458


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Sow seeds Shrubland and Heathland Conservation

A study in 2014–2015 in a shrubland in Utah, USA (Stevens et al. 2016) found that sowing seeds of the shrub hackberry Celtis reticulata led to very low germination rates. After eight months, 41 of 2600 (1.6%) hackberry seeds had successfully germinated. However, after 12 months only 19 of the 41 seedlings had survived. In October 2014 seeds were collected from hackberry plants. Later in October 2014 2600 of the seeds were sown under boulders, with 100 placed under each boulder. The site was visited to check for signs of germination in May-November 2015.

(Summarised by Phil)