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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Eurasian watermilfoil and parrotfeather control using carfentrazone-ethyl

Published source details

Gray C., Madsen J., Wersal R. & Getsinger K. (2007) Eurasian watermilfoil and parrotfeather control using carfentrazone-ethyl. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 45, 43-46


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Parrot’s feather: Use of herbicides - carfentrazone-ethyl Control of Freshwater Invasive Species

A small, replicated, randomized, controlled, laboratory study conducted in 2004 in the USA (Gray et al. 2007), found that the herbicide carfentrazone-ethyl reduced growth in parrot’s feather Myriophyllum aquaticum. After three weeks, young parrot’s feather plants treated with carfentrazone-ethyl had a lower dry weight (1.8–2.4 g/pot) than untreated plants (6.4–10 g/pot). Parrot’s feather shoots were propagated in 3.9 l plastic containers. Carfentrazone-ethyl application rate ranged between 100 and 200 μg/l and each herbicide rate was applied to three plants.

(Summarised by Ricardo Rocha)

Parrot’s feather: Use of herbicides - 2,4-D Control of Freshwater Invasive Species

A small, replicated, randomized, controlled, laboratory study conducted in 2004 in the USA (Gray et al. 2007), found that the herbicide 2,4-D reduced growth in parrot’s feather Myriophyllum aquaticum. After three weeks, young parrot’s feather plants treated with 2,4-D had a lower dry weight (0–3.1 g/pot) than untreated plants (6.4–10 g/pot). Parrot’s feather shoots were propagated in 3.9 l plastic containers. 2,4-D application rate ranged between 100 and 1,000 μg/l and each herbicide rate was applied to three plants.

Parrot’s feather: Use of herbicides - 2,4-D Control of Freshwater Invasive Species

A small, replicated, randomized, controlled, laboratory study conducted in 2004 in the USA (Gray et al. 2007), found that the combined application of the herbicides 2,4-D and carfentrazone-ethyl completely eliminated parrot’s feather Myriophyllum aquaticum. After three weeks, young parrot’s feather plants treated with a combination of 2,4-D and carfentrazone-ethyl were totally controlled (0 g/pot) whereas untreated plants had a biomass between 6.4 and 10 g/plot. Parrot’s feather shoots were propagated in 3.9 l plastic containers. Carfentrazone-ethyl was applied at a constant rate of 100 μg/l, whereas the rate of 2,4-D application ranged between 250 and 2,000 μg/l. Each herbicide rate was applied to three plants.