Effect of tetanus toxoid inoculation on mortality in the Cayo Santiago macaque population

  • Published source details Kessler M.J., Berard J.D. & Rawlins R.G. (1988) Effect of tetanus toxoid inoculation on mortality in the Cayo Santiago macaque population. American Journal of Primatology, 15, 93-101


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Preventative vaccination of habituated or wild primates

Action Link
Primate Conservation
  1. Preventative vaccination of habituated or wild primates

    A before-and-after trial in 1977-1987 in tropical dry forest in Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico (1) found that annual mortality rate of free-ranging, introduced rhesus macaques Macaca mulatta decreased after implementation of preventative tetanus toxoid inoculations. In 1977-1984, annual mortality of the monkeys was 6.39% of which 19.5% were caused by tetanus infections. After the implementation of yearly inoculation procedures in 1985 and 1986, annual mortality decreased to 3.69% of which only 0.8% was caused by tetanus infections. During the annual trapping in 1985 all monkeys except two new-born infants received the first dose of tetanus toxoid inoculation. In 1986, inoculated monkeys received their second inoculations and yearlings received their first inoculation. In the following years, yearlings and 2-year-old macaques were inoculated by three doses of vaccine treatments.

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