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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Effect of tetanus toxoid inoculation on mortality in the Cayo Santiago macaque population

Published source details

Kessler M.J., Berard J.D. & Rawlins R.G. (1988) Effect of tetanus toxoid inoculation on mortality in the Cayo Santiago macaque population. American Journal of Primatology, 15, 93-101


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Preventative vaccination of habituated or wild primates Primate Conservation

A before-and-after trial in 1977-1987 in tropical dry forest in Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico (1) found that annual mortality rate of free-ranging, introduced rhesus macaques Macaca mulatta decreased after implementation of preventative tetanus toxoid inoculations. In 1977-1984, annual mortality of the monkeys was 6.39% of which 19.5% were caused by tetanus infections. After the implementation of yearly inoculation procedures in 1985 and 1986, annual mortality decreased to 3.69% of which only 0.8% was caused by tetanus infections. During the annual trapping in 1985 all monkeys except two new-born infants received the first dose of tetanus toxoid inoculation. In 1986, inoculated monkeys received their second inoculations and yearlings received their first inoculation. In the following years, yearlings and 2-year-old macaques were inoculated by three doses of vaccine treatments.