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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Community-based development as a conservation tool: The Community Baboon Sanctuary and the Gales Point, Manatee project.

Published source details

Horwich R.H. & Lyon J. (1998) Community-based development as a conservation tool: The Community Baboon Sanctuary and the Gales Point, Manatee project. in: Timber, tourists and temples. Conservation and development in the Maya Forest of Belize, Guatemala and Mexico. Island Press, Covelo, CA.


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Avoid/minimize logging of important food tree species for primates Primate Conservation

A before-and-after trial in 1985-1998 in secondary riparian forest in the Community Baboon Sanctuary, Belize, South America found that a population of black howler monkey Alouatta pigra, for which important food trees were preserved in large clearings alongside ten other interventions, increased by 138% over 13 years. The population increased from 840 to over 2,000 individuals (138% increase), although no statistical tests were carried out to determine whether this difference was significant. Additional interventions included the protection of the sanctuary by the communities surrounding it, preserving forest buffer strips along property boundaries and a forest corridor along the river, constructing pole bridges over man-made gaps, involving local communities in the management of the sanctuary, creation of a museum for education purposes, an eco-tourism and research programme, presence of permanent staff, and monetary (income from employment, tourism and craft industries) and non-monetary (e.g. better education) benefits  to local communities for sustainably managing their forest and its wildlife communities. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

(Summarised by JJ)

Create/protect forest patches in highly fragmented landscapes Primate Conservation

A before-and-after trial in 1985-1998 in secondary riparian forest in the Community Baboon Sanctuary, Belize, South America found that a population of black howler monkey Alouatta pigra, for which forest buffer strips along property boundaries and strips of forest across large cleared areas were maintained alongside ten other interventions, increased by 138% over 13 years. The population increased from 840 to more than 2,000 individuals (138%), although no statistical tests were carried out to determine whether this difference was significant. Additional interventions included the protection of the sanctuary by the communities surrounding it, preserving a forest corridor along the river, constructing pole bridges over man-made gaps, preserving important howler food trees in large clearings, involving local communities in the management of the sanctuary, creation of a museum for education purposes, an eco-tourism and research program, presence of permanent staff, and monetary (income from tourism and craft industries) benefits to local communities for sustainably managing their forest and its wildlife communities. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Create/protect habitat corridors Primate Conservation

A before-and-after trial in 1985-1998 in secondary riparian forest in the Community Baboon Sanctuary, Belize, South America found that a population of black howler monkey Alouatta pigra, for which a forest corridor along the river was preserved alongside ten other interventions, increased by 138% over 13 years. The population increased from 840 to more than 2,000 individuals (138%), although no statistical tests were carried out to determine whether this difference was significant. Additional interventions included the protection of the sanctuary by the communities surrounding it, preserving forest buffer strips along property boundaries, constructing pole bridges over man-made gaps, preserving important howler food trees in large clearings, involving local communities in the management of the sanctuary, creation of a museum for education purposes, an eco-tourism and research program, presence of permanent staff, and monetary (income from tourism and craft industries) benefits to local communities for sustainably managing their forest and its wildlife communities. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Provide monetary benefits to local communities for sustainably managing their forest and its wildlife (e.g. REDD, employment) Primate Conservation

A before-and-after trial in 1985-1998 in riparian forest in the Community Baboon Sanctuary, Belize, found that when local communities received monetary benefits for sustainably managing their forest and its wildlife through tourism and craft industries alongside ten other interventions, the sanctuary’s black howler monkey Alouatta pigra population increased by 138% over 13 years. The population increased from 840 to over 2,000 individuals, although no statistical tests were carried out to determine whether this increase was significant. Additional interventions included the protection of the sanctuary by the communities surrounding it, preserving forest buffer strips along property boundaries and a forest corridor along the river, constructing pole bridges over man-made gaps, involving local communities in the management of the sanctuary, preserving important howler food trees in large clearings, an eco-tourism and research program, creation of a museum for education purposes, presence of permanent staff. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Establish areas for conservation which are not protected by national or international legislation (e.g. private sector standards & codes) Primate Conservation

A before-and-after trial in 1985-1998 in secondary semi deciduous riparian forest in the Community Baboon Sanctuary, Belize, South America found that the black howler monkey population Alouatta pigra, which was protected by the local communities surrounding it alongside ten other interventions, increased by 138% over 13 years. The population increased from 840 to more than 2,000 individuals (138%), although no statistical tests were carried out to determine whether this difference was significant. Additional interventions included preserving forest buffer strips along property boundaries, strips of forest across large cleared areas and a forest corridor along the river, constructing pole bridges over man-made gaps, preserving important howler food trees in large clearings, involving local communities in the management of the sanctuary, creation of a museum for education purposes, an eco-tourism and research program, presence of permanent staff, and monetary (income from tourism and craft industries) benefits to local communities for sustainably managing their forest and its wildlife communities. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Install rope or pole (canopy) bridges Primate Conservation

A before-and-after trial in 1985-1998 in secondary riparian forest in the Community Baboon Sanctuary, Belize found black howler monkey Alouatta pigra numbers increased by 138% over 13 years after the construction of pole bridges over man-made gaps, alongside ten other interventions. The population increased from 840 to more than 2,000 individuals (138% increase). No statistical tests were carried out to determine whether this difference was significant. Additional interventions included the protection of the sanctuary by the communities surrounding it, preserving forest buffer strips along property boundaries, preserving a forest corridor along the river, preserving important howler monkey food trees in large clearings, involving local communities in the management of the sanctuary, creating a museum for education purposes, implementing an eco-tourism and research programme, presence of permanent staff, and monetary (income from employment, tourism and craft industries) benefits to local communities for sustainably managing their forest and its wildlife communities. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

(Summarised by JJ)

Involve local community in primate research and conservation management Primate Conservation

A before-and-after trial in 1985-1998 in riparian forest in the Community Baboon Sanctuary, Belize found that when local communities were involved in the management of the sanctuary alongside 11 other interventions, the population of black howler monkey Alouatta pigra, increased over 13 years. The howler monkey population increased from 840 to over 2,000 individuals (138%). No statistical tests were carried out to determine whether this difference was significant. Additional interventions included the protection of the sanctuary by the communities surrounding it, preserving forest buffer strips along property boundaries and a forest corridor along the river, constructing pole bridges over man-made gaps, preserving important howler food trees in large clearings, creation of a museum for education purposes, an eco-tourism and research programme, presence of permanent staff, and monetary (income from employment, tourism and craft industries) and non-monetary (e.g. better education) benefits to local communities for sustainably managing their forest and its wildlife communities. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Implement multimedia campaigns using theatre, film, print media, discussions Primate Conservation

A before-and-after study in 1985-1998 in secondary forest in the Community Baboon Sanctuary, Belize found that after creating a sanctuary museum for wildlife education purposes along with eleven other interventions, the sanctuary’s black howler monkey Alouatta pigra population increased by 138% over 13 years. The population increased from 840 to more than 2,000 individuals, although no statistical tests were carried out to determine whether this difference was significant. Additional interventions included the protection of the sanctuary by the surrounding communities, preserving forest buffer strips along property boundaries and a forest corridor along the river, constructing pole bridges over man-made gaps, involving local communities in the management of the sanctuary, preserving important howler food trees in large clearings, an eco-tourism and research programme, presence of permanent staff, and monetary (income from employment, tourism and craft industries) and non-monetary (e.g. better education) benefits to local communities for sustainably managing their forest and its wildlife communities. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Permanent presence of staff/manager Primate Conservation

A before-and-after trial in 1985-1998 in riparian forest in the Community Baboon Sanctuary, Belize, South America found that when staff were permanently present along with ten other interventions, the sanctuary’s black howler monkey Alouatta pigra population increased by 138% over 13 years. The population increased from 840 to over 2,000 individuals, although no statistical tests were carried out to determine whether this increase was significant. Additional interventions included the protection of the sanctuary by the communities surrounding it, preserving forest buffer strips along property boundaries and a forest corridor along the river, constructing pole bridges over man-made gaps, involving local communities in the management of the sanctuary, preserving important howler food trees in large clearings, an eco-tourism and research program, creation of a museum for education purposes, and monetary benefits (income from tourism and craft industries) to local communities for sustainably managing their forest and its wildlife communities. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Run research project and ensure permanent human presence at site Primate Conservation

A before-and-after trial in 1985-1998 in riparian forest at Community Baboon Sanctuary, Belize found that when permanent research staff were employed along with ten other interventions, the sanctuary’s black howler monkey Alouatta pigra population increased by 138% over 13 years. The population increased from 840 to over 2,000 individuals (138% increase), although no statistical tests were carried out to determine whether this difference was significant. Additional interventions included the protection of the sanctuary by the local communities, preserving forest buffer strips along property boundaries and a forest corridor along the river, constructing pole bridges over man-made gaps, involving local communities in the management of the sanctuary, preserving important howler food trees in large clearings, an eco-tourism program, creation of a museum for education purposes, and monetary benefits (income from tourism and craft industries) to local communities for sustainably managing their forest and its wildlife communities. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Run tourist projects and ensure permanent human presence at site Primate Conservation

A before-and-after trial in 1985-1998 in riparian forest at Community Baboon Sanctuary, Belize found that when a tourism program was implemented along with ten other interventions, the sanctuary’s black howler monkey Alouatta pigra population increased by 138% over 13 years. The population increased from 840 to over 2,000 individuals, although no statistical tests were carried out to determine whether this increase was significant. Additional interventions included the protection of the sanctuary by the local communities, preserving forest buffer strips along property boundaries and a forest corridor along the river, constructing pole bridges over man-made gaps, involving local communities in the management of the sanctuary, preserving important howler food trees in large clearings, a research program, presence of permanent staff, creation of a museum for education purposes, and monetary benefits (income from tourism and craft industries) to local communities for sustainably managing their forest and its wildlife communities. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.