Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Captive-born lion tamarins released into the wild: a report from the field

Published source details

Dietz L.A. (1985) Captive-born lion tamarins released into the wild: a report from the field. Primate Conservation, 6, 21-27


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Habituate primates to human presence to reduce stress from tourists/researchers etc. Primate Conservation

A before-and-after trial in 1954-1985 in a degraded rainforest in Poço das Antas Reserve, Brazil found that a translocated captive-born golden lion tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia population that was habituated to human presence along with nine other interventions, decreased by more than half (57%) within the first year post-release. However, no statistical tests were carried out. to determine whether this difference was significant. Of the 14 individuals released, seven died (50%) and two were removed and treated. Three infants were born, one of which died due to illness. Eight individuals were released as a family group and six individuals were released as pairs one month later. Tamarins spent an unknown amount of time in 15 x 4.5 x 3 m outside enclosures to acclimatize. They were fostered to facilitate survival in the wild. The reserve included natural predators. Sick or injured tamarins were captured and treated. Reintroduced tamarins were supplied with food for ten months post-release. Artificial nesting boxes, which were hollow logs provided to them during training, were also set up in the reserve. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Allow primates to adapt to local habitat conditions for some time before introduction to the wild Primate Conservation

A before-and-after trial in 1954-1985 in degraded rainforest in Poço das Antas Reserve, Brazil found that a translocated captive-born golden lion tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia population that was allowed to acclimatize to the local environment before release along with nine other interventions, decreased by more than half (57%) within the first year of release. No statistical tests were carried out to determine whether this decrease was significant. Of the 14 individuals released, seven died and two were removed. Three infants were born, one of which died. Eight individuals were released as a family group and six were released as pairs one month later. Individuals spend an unknown amount of time in 15 x 4.5 x 3 m outside forest enclosures before release. They were habituated to humans and fostered to facilitate survival in the wild. The reserve included natural predators. Sick or injured tamarins were captured and treated. Reintroduced tamarins were supplied with food for ten months post-release. Artificial nesting boxes, which were hollow logs provided to them during training, were set up in the reserve. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Treat sick/injured animals Primate Conservation

A before-and-after trial in 1954-1985 in a degraded rainforest in Poço das Antas Reserve, Brazil found that a translocated population of captive-born golden lion tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia of which sick or injured individuals were removed from the wild and medically treated along with nine other interventions, decreased by 57% within the first year post-release. No statistical tests were carried out to determine whether this difference was significant. Of the 14 individuals released, seven died and two were removed and treated. Three infants were born, one of which died from illness. Eight individuals were released as a family group and six individuals were released as pairs one month later. Tamarins spent an unknown amount of time in 15 x 4.5 x 3 m outside enclosures to acclimatize. They were habituated to humans and fostered to facilitate survival in the wild. The reserve included natural predators. Reintroduced tamarins were supplied with food for 10 months post-release. Artificial nesting boxes were also put up in the reserve. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Reintroduce primates into habitat with predators Primate Conservation

A before-and-after trial in 1954–1985 in a rainforest in Poço das Antas Reserve, Brazil found that translocation, alongside nine other interventions, led to a decline within one year of the population of captive-born golden lion tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia released into habitat with natural predators. No statistical tests were carried out to determine whether this decrease was significant. Of the 14 individuals released, seven died and two were removed. Three infants were born, one of which died due to illness. Eight individuals were released as a family group and six individuals were released as pairs one month later. Tamarins were placed in enclosures measuring 15 x 4.5 x 3 m to acclimatize. Tamarins were habituated to humans and fostered to aid survival in the wild. Sick or injured tamarins were captured and treated in a nearby rehabilitation centre. Reintroduced tamarins were supplied with food for ten months after their release. Artificial nesting boxes, which were hollow logs provided to tamarins during training, were also set up in the reserve. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Fostering appropriate behaviour to facilitate rehabilitation Primate Conservation

A before-and-after trial in 1954-1985 in a degraded rain forest in Poço das Antas Reserve, Brazil found that the number of translocated captive-born golden lion tamarins Leontopithecus rosalia that were habituated to humans and fostered to facilitate survival in the wild along with nine other interventions, more than halved within the first year of release. No statistical tests were carried out to determine whether this decrease was significant. Of the 14 individuals released, seven died and two were removed. Three infants were born, one of which died. Eight individuals were released as a family group and six individuals were released as pairs one month later. Tamarins spend an unknown amount of time in 15 x 4.5 x 3 m outside enclosures. The reserve included natural predators. Sick or injured tamarins were captured and treated. Tamarins were supplied with food for 10 months post-release. Artificial nesting boxes, which were hollow logs provided to them during training, were set up in the reserve. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Provide additional sleeping platforms/nesting sites for primates Primate Conservation

A before-and-after trial in 1954-1985 in degraded rainforest in Poço das Antas Reserve, Brazil found that a translocated captive-born golden lion tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia population provided with artificial nestboxes, decreased by more than half (57%) within the first year post-release. No statistical tests were carried out to determine whether this decrease was significant. Of the 14 individuals released, seven died and two were removed. One female died from hypothermia, because her nestbox was occupied by another individual. Three infants were born, one of which died due to illness. Eight individuals were released as a family group and six were released as pairs one month later. Nesting boxes were hollow logs that individuals were accustomed to during training. Tamarins spent an unknown amount of time in 15 x 4.5 x 3 m outside enclosures to acclimatize. They were habituated to humans and fostered to facilitate survival post-release. The reserve harboured natural predators. Sick or injured tamarins were captured and treated. Reintroduced tamarins were supplied with food for ten months after their release. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Provide supplementary food for a certain period of time only Primate Conservation

A before-and-after trial in 1954-1985 in  degraded rainforest in Poço das Antas Reserve, Brazil found that a translocated captive-born golden lion tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia population that received supplementary food for ten months after release along with nine other interventions, decreased by more than half (57%) within the first year of release. No statistical tests were carried out to determine whether this decrease was significant. Of the 14 individuals released, seven (50%) died and two (14%) were removed. Three infants were born, one of which died due to illness. Eight individuals were released as a family group and six individuals were released as pairs one month later. Tamarins spend an unknown amount of time in 15 x 4.5 x 3 m outside enclosures to acclimatize. They were habituated to humans and fostered to facilitate survival in the wild. The reserve included natural predators. Sick or injured tamarins were captured and treated in a nearby rehabilitation centre. Artificial nesting boxes, which were hollow logs provided to them during training, were also set up in the reserve. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Reintroduce primates as single/multiple individuals Primate Conservation

A before-and-after trial in 1954–1985 in a degraded rain forest in Brazil found that a translocated captive-born golden lion tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia population, some of which were released as pairs alongside nine other interventions, decreased by more than half (57%) within the first year of release. No statistical tests were carried out to determine whether this decrease was significant. Of the 14 individuals released, seven died and two were removed. Three infants were born, one of which died. Eight individuals were released as a family group and six individuals were released as pairs one month later. Tamarins were placed in 15 x 4.5 x 3 m outside enclosures to acclimatize. They were habituated to humans and fostered to facilitate survival in the wild. The forest included natural predators. Sick or injured tamarins were captured and treated. Reintroduced tamarins were supplied with food for ten months after their release. Artificial nesting boxes, which were hollow logs provided to them during training, were also set up in the forest. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Reintroduce primates in groups Primate Conservation

A before-and-after trial in 1954-1985 in degraded rainforest in Poço das Antas Reserve, Brazil found that translocated captive-born golden lion tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia, some of which were released in groups along with nine other interventions, decreased in numbers by more than half (57%) within the first year post-release. No statistical tests were carried out to determine whether this decrease was significant. Of the 14 individuals released, seven died (50%) and two were removed. Three infants were born, one of which died. Eight individuals were released as a family group and six individuals were released as pairs one month later. Tamarins spent an unknown amount of time in 15 x 4.5 x 3 m outside enclosures to acclimatize. They were habituated to humans and fostered to facilitate survival in the wild. The reserve included natural predators. Sick or injured tamarins were captured and treated. Reintroduced tamarins were supplied with food for ten months post-release. Artificial nesting boxes, which were hollow logs provided to them during training, were provided. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.