Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Preliminary evaluation of the reintroduction of a mixed wild-captive group of black lion tamarins Leontopithecus chrysopygus .

Published source details

Valladares-Padua C., Martins S.C., Wormell D. & Setz F.E.Z. (2000) Preliminary evaluation of the reintroduction of a mixed wild-captive group of black lion tamarins Leontopithecus chrysopygus . Dodo, 36, 30-38


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Captive breeding and reintroduction of primates into the wild: born and raised in a free-ranging environment Primate Conservation

A study in 1999 in tropical forest of Morro do Diabo State Park, São Paulo, Brazil found that only some of the wild and captive-bred black lion tamarins Leontopithecus chrysopygus that were reintroduced along with other interventions, survived for at least four months. Four months after release of three individuals, one captive-bred male died. The captive-born male was bred in a free-ranging environment, whereas the two females had been captured from the release site, forming a group of three individuals. To facilitate reintroduction, the male had been fostered natural behaviour. The male was treated when sick. Tamarins underwent veterinary screens before translocation to an enclosure at the release site where they could adapt to the local environment where predators occurred. Monkeys were fitted with radio-transmitters and supplemented with food. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Regularly and continuously provide supplementary food to primates Primate Conservation

A study in 1999 in tropical forest of Morro do Diabo State Park, São Paulo, Brazil found that only some of the individuals in a group of reintroduced wild and captive-bred black lion tamarins Leontopithecus chrysopygus that were supplemented with food along with other interventions, survived for at least four months. Four months after the release of three individuals, one tamarin died. Supplementary food was provided twice a day for one month and then daily for another two months. Tamarins underwent veterinary screens before translocation to an enclosure at the release site where they could adapt to the local environment where predators occurred. The group consisted of two wild females and one captive-born male. The latter was bred in a free-ranging environment where he had been fostered natural behaviour to facilitate reintroduction. The male was also treated when sick. Monkeys were fitted with radio-collars. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Treat sick/injured animals Primate Conservation

A study in 1999 in tropical forest in Morro do Diabo State Park, São Paulo, Brazil found that only some of the individuals in a group of reintroduced wild and captive-bred black lion tamarins Leontopithecus chrysopygus had survived over four months post-release, although sick animals were treated alongside other interventions. Four months post-release of three individuals, one tamarin died. After being found weak and dehydrated nine days after his release, this male was recaptured, treated and released again 13 days later but was found dead some weeks later. Tamarins underwent veterinary screens before translocation to an enclosure at the release site where they could adapt to the local environment where predators occurred. The released group consisted of two wild females and one captive-born male raised in a free-ranging environment where he had been fostered natural behaviour to facilitate reintroduction. Monkeys were fitted with radio-transmitters and supplemented with food throughout the study. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Conduct veterinary screens of animals before reintroducing/translocating them Primate Conservation

A study in 1999 in tropical forest of Morro do Diabo State Park, São Paulo, Brazil found that only two of three reintroduced wild and captive-bred black lion tamarins Leontopithecus chrysopygus that underwent health checks prior to release along with other interventions, survived for at least four months. One tamarin underwent medical tests including both blood and faecal analyses, and a tuberculin test prior to transport. Prior to release, blood tests were conducted for all tamarins. Tamarins were held in an enclosure to adapt to the local environment where predators occurred. The group consisted of two wild females and one captive-born male, bred in a free-ranging environment, where natural behaviour was fostered to facilitate reintroduction. The male was treated after he was detected sick. Monkeys were fitted with radio transmitters and continuously supplemented with food until the end of the study. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Allow primates to adapt to local habitat conditions for some time before introduction to the wild Primate Conservation

A study in 1999 in tropical forest of Morro do Diabo State Park, São Paulo, Brazil found that only some of the individuals in a group of reintroduced wild and captive-bred black lion tamarins Leontopithecus chrysopygus, that were allowed to adapt to the local habitat before their release along with other interventions, survived over four months. Four months after release of three individuals, one tamarin died. The group was held for three weeks in an enclosure to adapt to the local environment where predators occurred. The released group consisted of two wild females and one captive-born male bred in a free-ranging environment where he had been fostered natural behaviour to facilitate reintroduction. The male was treated when sick. Tamarins underwent veterinary screens prior to transport to the release site. Monkeys were fitted with radio-transmitters and supplemented with food until the end of the study. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.

Reintroduce primates in groups Primate Conservation

A study in 1999 in tropical forest of Morro do Diabo State Park, Brazil found that only some of the reintroduced wild and captive-bred black lion tamarins Leontopithecus chrysopygus that were released in one group along with other interventions, survived over four months. Four months after the release of three individuals, one tamarin died. The group consisted of two wild females and one captive-born male which was bred in a free-ranging environment to facilitate reintroduction. The male was treated after becoming sick. Tamarins underwent veterinary screens before translocation to an enclosure at the release site where they could adapt to the local environment with predators. Tamarins were fitted with radio-transmitters and supplemented with food. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.