Individual study: Mediating Water Temperature Increases Due to Livestock and Global Change in High Elevation Meadow Streams of the Golden Trout Wilderness
Nusslé S., Matthews K.R. & Carlson S.M. (2015) Mediating Water Temperature Increases Due to Livestock and Global Change in High Elevation Meadow Streams of the Golden Trout Wilderness. PLoS ONE, 10, e0142426
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Other biodiversity: Exclude grazers
A site comparison in 2014 in an alpine meadow in southern California, USA, found more and larger willow Salix sp. trees in a plot from which cattle were excluded, compared to a grazed area. Plants: Streamside vegetation within a plot from which cattle were excluded had more willows than the surrounding grazed area (980 trees in 1,200 m vs 75 in 900 m) and had a lower cover of sedges Carex sp. (data not reported). Willows within the ungrazed plot were larger than those in the grazed area (average height: 48 vs 25 cm; maximum height: 300 vs 170 cm). Methods: Cattle were excluded from a 1,200 m section of stream in 1991 but were allowed to graze on the remaining 900 m. Vegetation within 2 m of the stream was surveyed in 2014.