Individual study: Determining the Effects of Cattle Grazing Treatments on Yosemite Toads ( Anaxyrus [= Bufo ] canorus ) in Montane Meadows
McIlroy S.K., Lind A.J., Allen-Diaz B.H., Roche L.M., Frost W.E., Grasso R.L. & Tate K.W. (2013) Determining the Effects of Cattle Grazing Treatments on Yosemite Toads ( Anaxyrus [= Bufo ] canorus ) in Montane Meadows. PLOS ONE, 8, e79263
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Other biodiversity: Exclude grazers
A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2006–2010 in alpine meadows in central California, USA, found no difference in the density of young Yosemite toads Anaxyrus canorus, the density of tadpoles, or the proportion of pools occupied by toads between plots with or without cattle excluded. Amphibians: The densities of young toads and tadpoles, and the proportion of pools that were occupied by toads, did not differ between plots with or without cattle excluded (0–12 toads/ha, 20–4,100 tadpoles/ha, 15–63% occupied pools). Methods: In 2005, 14 meadows were selected and randomly assigned to one of three treatments: unfenced (grazed, five meadows), fenced around toad breeding areas (five meadows), or fenced around the whole meadow (four meadows). Before the experiment, all meadows had been grazed been late June and September. Tadpoles were surveyed once/summer and young toads were surveyed twice/year.