Individual study: EDITOR'S CHOICE: Small-scale restoration in intensive agricultural landscapes supports more specialized and less mobile pollinator species
Kremen C. & M'Gonigle L.K. (2015) EDITOR'S CHOICE: Small-scale restoration in intensive agricultural landscapes supports more specialized and less mobile pollinator species. Journal of Applied Ecology, 52, 602-610
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Pollination: Plant hedgerows
A replicated, before-and-after study in April–August of 2006–2013 in field borders in the Central Valley, California, USA (same study as (4)), found that flower-visiting insect species were more likely to be present after woody hedgerows were planted than before. Pollinator numbers: Insects that specialize in relatively few flower species (specialists) were more likely to be present six years after planting, compared to the first year after planting (bee species: 0.3 vs 0.0 probability of occurrence/transect; syrphid fly species: 0.1 vs 0.02), and so were generalist syrphid fly species, but not generalist bee species (syrphid fly species: 0.12 vs 0.07; bee species: 0.2 vs 0.2). Methods: Field borders (350 x 3–6 m) were planted with native shrubs and trees in 2007–2008 in five fields, and unplanted borders in ten fields were used as controls. Fields borders had an irrigation ditch or slough. Fields were approximately 80 acres of row crops, vineyards, or orchards. Hedgerows were watered and weeded for three years. At least three times per year, insects were collected from flowers on one-hour transects at each site.