Individual study: On-farm habitat restoration counters biotic homogenization in intensively managed agriculture
Ponisio L.C., M'Gonigle L.K. & Kremen C. (2015) On-farm habitat restoration counters biotic homogenization in intensively managed agriculture. Global Change Biology, 22, 704-715
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Pollination: Plant hedgerows
A replicated site comparison in 2007–2013 in farmland in the Central Valley, California, USA, found greater bee diversity in mature hedgerows compared to weedy field edges or immature (“maturing”) hedgerows. Pollinator numbers and Implementation options: Greater bee diversity was found in mature hedgerows compared to weedy field margins or immature hedgerows, but not in immature hedgerows compared to weedy field margins (data was reported as beta-diversity, which is change in the diversity of species between sites). Twenty-eight percent of bee species were found only in hedgerows. Thirteen percent were found only in weedy edges. Methods: Native, perennial shrubs and trees (3–6 x 350 m) were planted 1–10 years (immature hedgerows) or >10 years (mature hedgerows) before bees were collected. Bees were collected if they touched the reproductive parts of flowers, in one-hour samples of 21 hedgerows and 24 weedy edges, 2–5 times/year, in April–August 2007–2013.