Individual study: Suppression of soil-borne pathogens of tomato by composts derived from agro-industrial wastes abundant in Mediterranean regions
Ntougias S., Papadopoulou K.K., Zervakis G.I., Kavroulakis N. & Ehaliotis C. (2008) Suppression of soil-borne pathogens of tomato by composts derived from agro-industrial wastes abundant in Mediterranean regions. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 44, 1081-1090
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Pest regulation: Add compost to the soil
A replicated, randomized, controlled study (year not reported) in a Mediterranean country (possibly Greece, since all of the authors had addresses in Greece) found less disease and fewer dead tomato plants in pots with added compost, compared to pots without added compost, in some comparisons. Pest regulation: Less disease was found on tomato leaves taken from pots with added compost, compared to pots without added compost, after the leaves were inoculated with Septoria lycopersici (sum of spot diameters: 0.3–4.0 vs 9.0 mm/leaf, in five of nine comparisons; number of spots: 2.5–3.5 vs 10.3 spots/leaf, in three of nine comparisons). Crop damage: Fewer dead tomato plants were found in pots with added compost, after the pots were inoculated with Phytophthora nicotianae (0–44% vs 96–99% dead plants) or Fusarium oxysporum (5–47% vs 39–86%; 18 of 23 comparisons). Methods: For each of two pathogens (P. nicotianae or F. oxysporum), there were nine pots (300 cm3) for each of nine treatments (types of compost) and one control (no compost). All pots were inoculated with a pathogen when the tomato seeds were planted or one month before. Dead plants were counted daily. For another pathogen (S. lycopersici), there were six tomato plants for each of the nine treatments and one control. When these plants were four weeks old, one leaf from each was inoculated with S. lycopersici. Disease spots were measured after five days. The composts were made from olive-mill waste (leaves, press cakes, and wastewaters), grape waste, and mushroom waste. Tomatoes were grown in a growth chamber (25oC, 16 hour photoperiod, irrigated daily).