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Individual study: An evaluation of the effects of soil characteristics on mitigation and restoration involving blue elderberry, Sambucus mexicana

Published source details

Koch-Munz M. & Holyoak M. (2008) An evaluation of the effects of soil characteristics on mitigation and restoration involving blue elderberry, Sambucus mexicana. Environmental Management, 42, 49-65


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Water: Restore habitat along watercourses Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated site comparison in 2005–2006 in 46 riparian sites in the Central Valley, California, USA, found similar amounts of water in soils at restored and natural sites. Water availability: Similar amounts of water were found in soils at restored and natural sites (amounts not reported). Methods: Thirty restored sites (urban: 19; agricultural: 11; all with <30 planted elderberry plants; 2–15 years old) and 16 natural sites (within 20 km of restored sites) were compared. Restored sites were surveyed in July–early November 2005 and August–October 2006 and natural sites in April–September 2006. Restored sites were 24% of the size of natural sites. Soil samples (5–30 cm depth) were collected under three or more shrubs at each site.

 

Soil: Restore habitat along watercourses Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated site comparison in 2005–2006 in 46 riparian sites in the Central Valley, California, USA, found less carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in soils at restored sites, compared to natural sites. Organic matter: Less carbon was found in soils at restored sites, compared to natural sites (1.1% vs 1.8%). Nutrients: Less phosphorus (13 vs 41 ppm), potassium (181 vs 380), total nitrogen (0.09 vs 0.14%), and nitrate (5 vs 12 ppm) was found in soils at restored sites, compared to natural sites. Implementation options: Older restored sites had less total nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorous than younger restored sites (data not provided). Methods: Thirty restored sites (urban: 19; agricultural: 11; all with <30 planted elderberry plants; 2–15 years old) and 16 natural sites (within 20 km of restored sites) were compared. Restored sites were surveyed in July–early November 2005 and August–October 2006 and natural sites in April–September 2006. Restored sites were 24% of the size of natural sites. Soil samples (5–30 cm depth) were collected under three or more shrubs at each site.

 

Other biodiversity: Restore habitat along watercourses Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated site comparison in 2005–2006 in 46 riparian sites in the Central Valley, California, USA (same study as (9)), found that restored sites had lower canopy cover, stem diameter, and height than natural sites. Plants: Elderberry canopy size (400 vs 272 cm), stem diameter (8 vs 5 cm), and height (428 cm vs 320 cm) were larger in natural sites, compared to restored sites. Methods: Thirty restored sites (urban: 19; agricultural: 11; all with <30 planted elderberry plants; 2–15 years old) and 16 natural sites (within 20 km of restored sites) were compared. Restored sites were surveyed in July–early November 2005 and August–October 2006 and natural sites in April–September 2006. Restored sites were 24% of the size of natural sites. Growth rate was measured for 30 shrubs at each restored site (growth rate for natural sites came from a previous study).