Individual study: The effects of site conditions and mitigation practices on success of establishing the valley elderberry longhorn beetle and its host plant, blue elderberry
Holyoak M. & Koch-Munz M. (2008) The effects of site conditions and mitigation practices on success of establishing the valley elderberry longhorn beetle and its host plant, blue elderberry. Environmental Management, 42, 444-457
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Other biodiversity: Restore habitat along watercourses
A replicated site comparison in 2005–2006 in 46 riparian sites in the Central Valley, California, USA (same study as (10)), found smaller elderberry plants Sambucus mexicana, and fewer native ants, but similar numbers of non-native ants, in restored sites, compared to natural sites. Invertebrates: Fewer native ants but similar numbers of Argentine ants were found in restored sites. Plants: Smaller elderberry plants were found in restored sites. Implementation options: The number of Longhorn beetles Desmocerus californicus increased with site size and age. Elderberry seedlings grew faster than plant transplants. Elderberry plants grew slower in older sites. Methods: Thirty restored sites (with <30 planted elderberry plants) were compared with 16 natural sites (within 20 km). Restored sites were surveyed in July–early November 2005 and February–April 2006 and natural sites in April–September 2006. Restored sites were 24% of the size of natural sites.