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Individual study: Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from a vetch cropping season are changed by long-term tillage practices in a Mediterranean agroecosystem

Published source details

Tellez-Rio A., García-Marco S., Navas M., López-Solanilla E., Rees R.M., Tenorio J.L. & Vallejo A. (2015) Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from a vetch cropping season are changed by long-term tillage practices in a Mediterranean agroecosystem. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 51, 77-88


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Water: Use no tillage instead of reduced tillage Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1994–2011 in a rainfed cereal-legume field near Madrid, Spain, found more water in soils with no tillage, compared to reduced tillage. Water availability: More water was found in soils with no tillage, compared to reduced tillage, in some comparisons (amounts of water and numbers of comparisons not reported). Methods: No tillage or reduced tillage was used on three plots each (10 x 25 m). A chisel plough and a cultivator were used for reduced tillage (15 cm depth) in October. A seed drill and herbicide were used for no tillage. Soil samples were collected 1–12 times/month, in November 2010–October 2011 (0–15 cm depth, 2.5 cm diameter).

 

Water: Use no tillage in arable fields Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1994–2011 in a rainfed cereal-legume field near Madrid, Spain (same study as (14)), found more water in soils with no tillage, compared to conventional tillage. Water availability: More water was found in soils with no tillage, compared to conventional tillage, in some comparisons (amounts of water and numbers of comparisons not reported). Methods: No tillage or conventional tillage was used on three plots each (10 x 25 m). A mouldboard plough and a cultivator were used for conventional tillage (20 cm depth) in October. A seed drill and herbicide were used for no tillage.  Soil samples were collected 1–12 times/month, in November 2010–October 2011 (0–15 cm depth, 2.5 cm diameter).

 

Soil: Use no tillage instead of reduced tillage Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1994–2011 in a rainfed cereal-legume field near Madrid, Spain (same study as (9)), found more organic matter, but fewer soil organisms and lower greenhouse-gas emissions, in soils with no tillage, compared to reduced tillage. Organic matter: More organic carbon was found in soils with no tillage, compared to reduced tillage (29.7% more dissolved organic carbon). Nutrients: Similar amounts of nitrate and ammonium were found in soils with no tillage, compared to reduced tillage (1–18 mg NO3–N/ha; 0.2–3.5 mg NH4–N/kg). Soil organisms: Fewer bacteria were found in soils with no tillage, compared to reduced tillage (denitrifying bacteria: 106 vs 108 gene copies), but no difference in microbial biomass (measured as carbon) was found (304 vs 186 mg C/kg soil).  Greenhouse gases: Lower nitrous oxide emissions were found in soils with no tillage, compared to reduced tillage (0.05 vs 0.12 kg N2O–N/ha), but no difference in methane emissions was found (–137 vs –473 g CH4–C/ha). Methods: No tillage or reduced tillage was used on three plots each (10 x 25 m). A chisel plough and a cultivator were used for reduced tillage (15 cm depth) in October. A seed drill and herbicide were used for no tillage. Soil and greenhouse-gas samples were collected 1–12 times/month, in November 2010–October 2011 (soil cores: 0–15 cm depth, 2.5 cm diameter; closed chambers: 19.3 cm height, 35.6 cm diameter, 20 mL gas samples, 0–60 minutes after closing).

 

Soil: Use reduced tillage in arable fields Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1994–2011 in a rainfed cereal-legume field near Madrid, Spain (same study as (23,35)), found higher greenhouse-gas emissions, more soil organisms, and more organic matter in soils with reduced tillage, compared to conventional tillage. Organic matter: More organic carbon was found in soils with reduced tillage, compared to conventional tillage (27.1 vs 11.2 mg dissolved organic C/kg soil). Nutrients: Similar amounts of nitrate and ammonium were found in soils with reduced tillage, compared to conventional tillage (1–18 mg NO3-N/ha; 0.2–3.5 mg NH4-N/kg). Soil organisms: More bacteria were found in soils with reduced tillage, compared to conventional tillage (denitrifying bacteria: 108 vs 106 gene copies), but no difference in microbial biomass (measured as carbon) was found (186 vs 94 mg C/kg soil). Greenhouse gases: Higher nitrous oxide emissions were found in soils with reduced tillage, compared to conventional tillage (0.12 vs 0.05 kg N2O–N/ha), but no difference in methane emissions was found (–473 vs –231 g CH4–C/ha). Methods: No tillage or reduced tillage was used on three plots each (10 x 25 m), in October. A chisel plough and a cultivator were used for reduced tillage (15 cm depth). A mouldboard plough and a cultivator were used for conventional tillage (20 cm depth). Soil and greenhouse-gas samples were collected 1–12 times/month, in November 2010–October 2011, in the vetch phase of a fallow-wheat-vetch-barley rotation (soil cores: 0–15 cm depth, 2.5 cm diameter; closed chambers: 19.3 cm height, 35.6 cm diameter, 20 mL gas samples, 0–60 minutes after chamber closure). The vetch was not fertilized.

 

Soil: Use no tillage in arable fields Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1994–2011 in a rainfed cereal-legume field near Madrid, Spain (same study as (6,19,37)), found more organic matter and more soil organisms in soils with no tillage, compared to conventional tillage. Organic matter: More organic carbon was found in soils with no tillage, compared to conventional tillage (30.2 vs 11.2 mg dissolved organic C/kg soil). Nutrients: Similar amounts of nitrate and ammonium were found in soils with no tillage, compared to conventional tillage (1–18 mg NO3-N/ha; 0.2–3.5 mg NH4-N/kg). Soil organisms: More microbial biomass (measured as carbon) was found in soils with no tillage, compared to conventional tillage (304 vs 94 mg C/kg soil), but there were similar amounts of bacteria (denitrifying bacteria: 106 gene copies). Greenhouse gases: Similar nitrous-oxide and methane emissions were found in soils with no tillage or conventional tillage (0.05 kg N2O-N/ha; –137 vs –231 g CH4-C/ha). Methods: No tillage or conventional tillage was used on three plots each (10 x 25 m). A mouldboard plough and a cultivator were used for conventional tillage (20 cm depth) in October. A seed drill and herbicide were used for no tillage. Soil and greenhouse-gas samples were collected 1–12 times/month, in November 2010–October 2011 (soil cores: 0–15 cm depth, 2.5 cm diameter; closed chambers: 19.3 cm height, 35.6 cm diameter, 20 mL gas samples, 0–60 minutes after closing).