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Individual study: LONG term management systems under semiarid conditions: Influence on labile organic matter, β-glucosidase activity and microbial efficiency

Published source details

Martin-Lammerding D., Navas M., Albarrán M.M., Tenorio J.L. & Walter I. (2015) LONG term management systems under semiarid conditions: Influence on labile organic matter, β-glucosidase activity and microbial efficiency. Applied Soil Ecology, 96, 296-305


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Water: Use no tillage in arable fields Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1994–2013 in a rainfed wheat field near Madrid, Spain (same study as (15)), found more water in soils with no tillage, compared to conventional tillage. Water availability: More water was found in soils with no tillage, compared to conventional tillage, in one of six comparisons (November 2011: 180 vs 128 g water/kg soil). Methods: No tillage or conventional tillage was used on four plots each (in which a total of 24 subplots, 10 x 25 m each, were used in this study). A mouldboard plough was used for conventional tillage (25 cm depth). Pre-emergence herbicide was used for no tillage. The subplots had wheat monocultures or fallow-wheat-vetch-barley rotations. The cereals were fertilized (NPK, 200 kg/ha, twice/year, in October and March). The crop residues were shredded and retained. Soil samples were collected in October 2010, April 2011, November 2011, May 2012, October 2012 and April 2013 (50 mm diameter, 0–15 cm depth).

 

Soil: Use crop rotations Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1994–2013 in a rainfed wheat field near Madrid, Spain, found less organic matter and microbial biomass in plots with four-year rotations, compared to continuous wheat. Organic matter: Less organic carbon was found in soils with rotations, compared to continuous wheat, in two of 12 comparisons (5–7 vs 6–8 g C/kg soil). Soil organisms: Less microbial biomass (measured as carbon) was found in soils with rotations, compared to continuous wheat, in one of 12 comparisons (200 vs 260 mg C/kg soil). Greenhouse gases: Similar carbon dioxide emissions were found in plots with or without rotations (20–42 mg CO2-C/kg soil/day). Methods: Continuous wheat crops or four-year crop rotations (fallow-wheat-vetch Vicia sativa-barley) were used on 12 plots each (10 x 25 m subplots). The cereals were fertilized (NPK, 200 kg/ha, twice/year, in October and March). The crop residues were shredded and retained (but some of the plots were tilled). Soil samples were collected in October 2010, April 2011, November 2011, May 2012, October 2012 and April 2013 (50 mm diameter, 0–15 cm depth).

 

Water: Use reduced tillage in arable fields Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1994–2013 in a rainfed field near Madrid, Spain, found similar amounts of water in soils with reduced tillage or conventional tillage. Water availability: Similar amounts of water were found in soils with reduced tillage or conventional tillage (50–151 g water/kg soil). Methods: Conventional tillage or reduced tillage was used on eight plots each (10 x 25 m plots). A mouldboard plough was used for both conventional tillage (25 cm depth) and reduced tillage (20 cm depth). Crop residues were shredded and retained. Soil samples were collected six times, in October 2010–April 2013 (soil cores, 0–15 cm depth, 5 cm diameter).

 

Soil: Use reduced tillage in arable fields Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1994–2013 in a rainfed field near Madrid, Spain (same study as (23,39)), found more organic matter, soil organisms, and greenhouse gas in soils with reduced tillage, compared to conventional tillage. Organic matter: More organic carbon was found in plots with reduced tillage, compared to conventional tillage, in two of 12 comparisons (8 vs 6 g C/kg soil). Soil organisms: More microbial biomass (measured as carbon) was found in plots with reduced tillage, compared to conventional tillage, in three of 12 comparisons (380–400 vs 200–250 mg C/kg soil). Greenhouse gases: More carbon dioxide was found in plots with reduced tillage, compared to conventional tillage, in two of 12 comparisons (30–40 vs 20–28 mg CO2-C/kg soil/d). Methods: Conventional tillage or reduced tillage was used on eight plots each (10 x 25 m plots). A mouldboard plough was used for both conventional tillage (25 cm depth) and reduced tillage (20 cm depth). Wheat was grown on half of the plots, whereas wheat, vetch, and barley were grown in rotation on the other half. Wheat and barley were fertilized. Crop residues were shredded and retained. Soil sam  ples were collected six times in October 2010–April 2013 (soil cores, 0–15 cm depth, 5 cm diameter).

 

Soil: Use no tillage in arable fields Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1994–2013 in a rainfed wheat field near Madrid, Spain (same study as (6,19,39)), found that tillage had inconsistent effects on organic matter, soil organisms, and greenhouse gases. Organic matter: More organic carbon was found in soils with no tillage, compared to conventional tillage, in seven of 12 comparisons (9–13 vs 6 g organic C/kg soil), but less was found in one of 12 comparisons (6 vs 5 g). Soil organisms: More microbial biomass (measured as carbon) was found in soils with no tillage, compared to conventional tillage, in six of 12 comparisons (390–750 vs 200–300 mg C/kg soil), but less was found in one of 12 comparisons (200 vs 300 mg). Greenhouse gases: More carbon dioxide was found in soils with no tillage, compared to conventional tillage, in six of 12 comparisons (40–60 vs 20–30 mg CO2–C/kg soil/d), but less was found in one of 12 comparisons (18 vs 22 mg). Methods: No tillage or conventional tillage was used on four plots each (in which a total of 24 subplots, 10 x 25 m each, were used for this study). A mouldboard plough was used for conventional tillage (25 cm depth). Pre-emergence herbicide was used for no tillage. The subplots had wheat monocultures or fallow-wheat-vetch-barley rotations. The cereals were fertilized (NPK, 200 kg/ha, twice/year, in October and March). The crop residues were shredded and retained. Soil samples were collected in October 2010, April 2011, November 2011, May 2012, October 2012 and April 2013 (50 mm diameter, 0–15 cm depth).