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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: A field experiment investigating the effects of olive husk and cow manure on heavy metal availability in a contaminated calcareous soil from Murcia (Spain)

Published source details

Clemente R., Paredes C. & Bernal M.P. (2007) A field experiment investigating the effects of olive husk and cow manure on heavy metal availability in a contaminated calcareous soil from Murcia (Spain). Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 118, 319-326


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Soil: Use organic fertilizer instead of inorganic Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2003–2004 in a vegetable field in Murcia, Spain, found lower pH levels in plots with organic fertilizer, compared to inorganic fertilizer. Organic matter: Similar amounts of carbon were found in plots with organic or inorganic fertilizer (5–8 vs 3–5 g/kg). Nutrients: Lower pH was found in plots with organic fertilizer, compared to inorganic fertilizer, in one of four comparisons (pH 7.7 vs 8). Methods: Plots (6 m2) growing Swiss chard Beta vulgaris followed by saltwort Beta maritima either had organic fertilizer (51 t/ha cow manure) or inorganic fertilizer (200 kg/ha). Soil was sampled four times, at sowing and sampling of each species (0–20 cm depth).