Individual study: Almond tree and organic fertilization for soil quality improvement in southern Italy
Macci C., Doni S., Peruzzi E., Masciandaro G., Mennone C. & Ceccanti B. (2012) Almond tree and organic fertilization for soil quality improvement in southern Italy. Journal of Environmental Management, 95, S215-S222
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Soil: Add manure to the soil
A replicated, controlled study in 2006–2007 in an almond orchard in Italy found more organic matter and nitrogen, but inconsistent difference in phosphorus, in soils with added manure, compared to soils without added manure. Organic matter: More carbon was found in soils with added manure, in five of six comparisons (0.81–0.91% vs 0.52–0.63%). Nutrients: More nitrogen was found in soils with added manure (0.10–0.17 vs 0.06–0.08%). Less phosphorus was found in soils with added manure, in five of six comparisons (1–6 vs 7–16 µg/g), but more was found in one of six comparisons. Methods: Plots (85 x 17.5 m) had added manure (commercial cow manure pellets: 1.5 t/h) or no added manure (three plots for each). Manure was incorporated into the soil (15 cm depth). Soil samples (five samples/plot, 0–15 cm depth) were collected in November 2006 and 2007.