Study

The importance of the fallow period for N2O and CH4 fluxes and nitrate leaching in a Mediterranean irrigated agroecosystem

  • Published source details Sánchez-Martín L., Sanz-Cobena A., Meijide A., Quemada M. & Vallejo a. (2010) The importance of the fallow period for N2O and CH4 fluxes and nitrate leaching in a Mediterranean irrigated agroecosystem. European Journal of Soil Science, 61, 710-720

Actions

This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Water: Add slurry to the soil

Action Link
Mediterranean Farmland

Water: Add manure to the soil

Action Link
Mediterranean Farmland

Soil: Add slurry to the soil

Action Link
Mediterranean Farmland

Water: Use organic fertilizer instead of inorganic

Action Link
Mediterranean Farmland

Soil: Add manure to the soil

Action Link
Mediterranean Farmland

Soil: Use organic fertilizer instead of inorganic

Action Link
Mediterranean Farmland
  1. Water: Add slurry to the soil

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2007–2009 in an irrigated onion field near Madrid, Spain, found that more dissolved organic carbon was leached from plots with added slurry, compared to plots without it. Nutrients: Similar amounts of nitrate were leached from plots with or without added slurry (31 vs 17 kg/ha), but more dissolved organic carbon was leached from plots with added slurry (3 vs 2 kg/ha). Methods: Plots (20 m2) had anaerobically-digested pig slurry or no fertilizer (three plots each), added in 2007 and 2008 (110 kg N/ha). The slurry was immediately incorporated into the soil (10 cm depth), using a rotocultivator. Plots were irrigated 1–2 times/week (608–618 mm/year). Drainage water was collected in ceramic cups (80 cm depth, 40 kPa) thirty times during the experiment.

     

  2. Water: Add manure to the soil

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2007–2009 in an irrigated onion field near Madrid, Spain, found that more dissolved organic carbon was leached from soils with added manure, compared to soils without added manure. Nutrients: Similar amounts of nitrate were leached from soils with or without added manure (1 vs 17 kg/ha). More dissolved organic carbon was leached from soils with added manure (5 vs 2 kg/ha). Methods: Plots (20 m2) had manure (a mixture of hen and goat manure) or no fertilizer (three plots each), added in 2007 and 2008 (110 kg N/ha). The manure was immediately incorporated into the soil (10 cm depth), using a rotocultivator. Plots were irrigated 1–2 times/week (608–618 mm/year). Drainage water was collected in ceramic cups (80 cm depth, 40 kPa) thirty times during the experiment.

     

  3. Soil: Add slurry to the soil

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2007–2009 in an irrigated onion field near Madrid, Spain, found that more nitrous oxide was emitted from, and less methane was absorbed by, plots with added slurry, compared to plots without it. Greenhouse gases: More nitrous oxide was emitted from plots with slurry, compared to plots without it (1 vs 0.4 kg/ha), and less methane was absorbed by plots with slurry (–0.5 vs –1 kg/ha). Methods: Plots (20 m2) had anaerobically digested pig slurry (110 kg N/ha) or no fertilizer in 2007 and 2008 (three plots for each). Slurry was immediately incorporated into the soil (10 cm depth), using a rotocultivator. Plots were irrigated 1–2 times/week (608–618 mm/year). Greenhouse-gas samples (closed chambers, 19 litre volume, 10 mL samples, 0, 30, and 60 minutes after closing) and soil samples (0–10 cm depth) were collected four times/week in the first two weeks after fertilizer was applied, twice/week during the first month, and once/week until the end of cropping season.

     

  4. Water: Use organic fertilizer instead of inorganic

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2007–2009 in an irrigated onion field near Madrid, Spain, found that less nitrate, but more organic matter, was leached from plots with organic fertilizer, compared to inorganic fertilizer. Nutrients: Less nitrate (1 vs 44 kg/ha), but more dissolved organic carbon (5 vs 3 kg/ha), was leached from plots with organic fertilizer, compared to inorganic fertilizer, in one of two comparisons (manure vs urea). Implementation options: More nitrate (31–44 vs 1 kg/ha), but less dissolved organic carbon (3 vs 5 kg/ha), was leached from plots with slurry, compared to manure. Methods: Plots (20 m2) had organic fertilizer (anaerobically digested pig slurry, or hen and goat manure) or inorganic fertilizer (urea), applied in May 2007 and 2008 (110 kg N/ha; three plots for each fertilizer). Fertilizers were immediately incorporated into the soil (10 cm depth), using a rotocultivator. Plots were irrigated 1–2 times/week (608–618 mm/year). Drainage water was collected in ceramic cups (80 cm depth, 40 kPa) thirty times during the experiment.

     

  5. Soil: Add manure to the soil

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2007–2009 in an irrigated onion field near Madrid, Spain, found higher nitrous oxide and methane emissions in plots with added manure, compared to plots without added manure. Greenhouse gases: Higher nitrous oxide and methane emissions were found in plots with added manure (nitrous oxide: 1 vs 0.4 kg/ha; methane: 0.08 vs –1.15 kg/ha). Methods: Plots (20 m2) had manure (a mixture of hen and goat manure) or no fertilizer (three plots each), added in 2007 and 2008 (110 kg N/ha). The manure was immediately incorporated into the soil (10 cm depth), using a rotocultivator. Plots were irrigated 1–2 times/week (608–618 mm/year). Greenhouse-gas samples (closed chambers, 19 litre volume, 10 mL samples, 0, 30, and 60 minutes after closing) and soil samples (0–10 cm depth) were collected four times/week in the first two weeks after fertilizer was applied, twice/week during the first month, and once/week until the end of cropping season.

     

  6. Soil: Use organic fertilizer instead of inorganic

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2007–2009 in an irrigated onion field near Madrid, Spain, found similar nitrous oxide emissions in plots with organic or inorganic fertilizer, but more methane was absorbed by plots with organic fertilizer, in some comparisons. Greenhouse gases: Similar nitrous oxide emissions were found in plots with organic or inorganic fertilizer (1.1–1.2 vs 1.2 kg/ha). More methane was absorbed by plots with organic fertilizer, compared inorganic fertilizer, in one of two comparisons (–0.49 vs –0.02 kg/ha). Implementation options: Plots that were fertilized with slurry absorbed methane, but plots that were fertilized with manure emitted methane (–0.5 to –0.02 vs 0.08 kg/ha). Methods: Plots (20 m2) had organic fertilizer (anaerobically digested pig slurry, or hen and goat manure) or inorganic fertilizer (urea) in 2007 and 2008 (110 kg N/ha; three plots for each). Fertilizers were immediately incorporated into the soil (10 cm depth), using a rotocultivator. Plots were irrigated 1–2 times/week (608–618 mm/year). Greenhouse-gas samples (closed chambers, 19 litre volume, 10 mL samples, 0, 30, and 60 minutes after closing) and soil samples (0–10 cm depth) were collected four times/week in the first two weeks after fertilizer was applied, twice/week during the first month, and once/week until the end of cropping season.

     

Output references

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