Individual study: Effects of 5-year application of municipal solid waste compost on the distribution and mobility of heavy metals in a Tunisian calcareous soil
Achiba W.B., Gabteni N., Lakhdar A., Laing G.D., Verloo M., Jedidi N. & Gallali T. (2009) Effects of 5-year application of municipal solid waste compost on the distribution and mobility of heavy metals in a Tunisian calcareous soil. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 130, 156-163
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Soil: Add manure to the soil
A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1999–2004 in bare plots in Tunisia found more organic matter and nitrogen, but lower pH levels, in soils with added manure, compared to soils without added manure. Organic matter: More carbon was found in soils with added manure, in one of four comparisons (28 vs 9 g/kg). Nutrients: More nitrogen was found in soils with added manure (1.3–2 vs 1 g/kg). Lower pH levels were found in soils with added manure, in one of four comparisons (8 vs 8.3). Implementation options: Less carbon and nitrogen was found in plots with less fertilizer, compared to more fertilizer (carbon, in one of two comparisons: 12 vs 28 g/kg; nitrogen: 1 vs 2 g/kg). Similar pH levels were found in plots with different amounts of added manure (pH 8). Methods: Bare plots (1.5 x 1.5 m) had added manure (0, 40, or 120 t/ha) or no added manure (four plots for each). Manure was incorporated into the soil (10–15 cm depth). Soil samples (five samples/plot, 0–40 cm depth) were collected in September 2004.