Study

Nitrate leaching from a maize × oats double-cropping forage system fertilized with organic residues under Mediterranean conditions

  • Published source details Carneiro J.P., Coutinho J. & Trindade H. (2012) Nitrate leaching from a maize × oats double-cropping forage system fertilized with organic residues under Mediterranean conditions. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 160, 29-39

Actions

This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Water: Add sewage sludge to the soil

Action Link
Mediterranean Farmland

Water: Add slurry to the soil

Action Link
Mediterranean Farmland

Water: Add compost to the soil

Action Link
Mediterranean Farmland

Soil: Add sewage sludge to the soil

Action Link
Mediterranean Farmland

Water: Use organic fertilizer instead of inorganic

Action Link
Mediterranean Farmland

Soil: Add slurry to the soil

Action Link
Mediterranean Farmland

Soil: Use organic fertilizer instead of inorganic

Action Link
Mediterranean Farmland

Soil: Add compost to the soil

Action Link
Mediterranean Farmland
  1. Water: Add sewage sludge to the soil

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2006–2008 in a cereal field in the Castelo Branco region, Portugal, found that more nitrate was leached from soils with added sewage sludge, compared to soils without it. Nutrients: More nitrate was leached from soils with added sewage sludge, compared to soils without it, in one of four comparisons (145 vs 49 kg NO3-N/ha). Implementation options: With a split application of sewage sludge (some in spring, some in autumn), more nitrate was leached from soils with added sewage sludge, compared to soils without it, in 2006/2007 (145 vs 49 kg NO3-N/ha). However, with a single application in the spring, there was not a significant difference between soils with or without added sewage sludge (2006/2007: 101 vs 49 kg NO3-N/ha; 2007/2008: 26 vs 23 kg). Methods: Water in the soil was collected in porous ceramic suction cup samplers (four/plot; 0.6–0.7 m depth; 50 kPa for 24 hours), whenever drainage occurred (October–November and April–May; 16 samples in total). There were three plots (5.6 x 8 m) for each of two treatments (single application or split application of sewage sludge) and there were two control plots (no sewage sludge). Maize was grown in spring–summer, and oats were grown in autumn–winter.

     

  2. Water: Add slurry to the soil

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2006–2008 in a cereal field in the Castelo Branco region, Portugal, found that similar amounts of nitrate were leached from soils with or without added slurry. Nutrients: Similar amounts of nitrate were leached from soils with or without added slurry (2006–2007: 78 vs 49 kg NO3-N/ha; 2007–2008: 28 vs 23). Methods: Water in the soil was collected in porous ceramic suction cup samplers (four/plot; 0.6–0.7 m depth; 50 kPa for 24 hours), whenever drainage occurred (October–November and April–May; 16 samples in total). Cattle slurry was added to three treatment plots (5.6 x 8 m), but not three control plots, in spring. Maize was grown in spring–summer, and oats were grown in autumn–winter.

     

  3. Water: Add compost to the soil

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2006–2008 in a cereal field in the Castelo Branco region, Portugal, found that more nitrate was leached from soils with added compost, compared to soils without added compost, in one of four comparisons. Nutrients and Implementation options: With a single application of compost in the spring, more nitrate was leached from plots with added compost, compared to plots without added compost, in 2006/2007 (111 vs 49 kg NO3-N/ha), but not in 2007/2008 (32 vs 23 kg). With a split application (some in spring, some in autumn), there were no significant differences between plots with and without added compost (2006/2007: 107 vs 49 kg NO3-N/ha; 2007/2008: 35 vs 23 kg). Methods: Water in the soil was collected in porous ceramic suction cup samplers (four/plot, 0.6–0.7 m depth, 50 kPa for 24 hours), whenever drainage occurred (October–November and April–May; 16 samples in total). There were three plots (5.6 x 8 m) for each of two treatments (single application or split application of compost) and one control (no compost). The compost was made from municipal waste. Maize was grown in spring–summer, and oats were grown in autumn–winter.

     

  4. Soil: Add sewage sludge to the soil

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2006–2008 in a cereal field in the Castelo Branco region, Portugal, found similar amounts of nitrate in soils with or without added sewage sludge. Nutrients: Similar amounts of nitrate were found in soils with or without added sewage sludge (1–50 vs 1–10 mg NO3-N/litre water). Methods: Water in the soil was collected in porous ceramic suction cup samplers (four/plot; 0.6–0.7 m depth; 50 kPa for 24 hours), whenever drainage occurred (October–November and April–May; 16 samples in total). There were three plots (5.6 x 8 m) for each of two treatments (single application or split application of sewage sludge) and one control (no sewage sludge). Maize was grown in spring–summer, and oats were grown in autumn–winter.

     

  5. Water: Use organic fertilizer instead of inorganic

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2006–2008 in a cereal field in the Castelo Branco region, Portugal, found that similar amounts of nitrate were leached from soils with organic or inorganic fertilizer. Nutrients: Similar amounts of nitrate were leached from soils with organic or inorganic fertilizer (2006–2007: 78–145 kg NO3-N/ha; 2007–2008: 26–35 kg). Methods: Water in the soil was collected in porous ceramic suction cup samplers (four/plot, 0.6–0.7 m depth, 50 kPa for 24 hours), whenever drainage occurred (October–November and April–May; 16 samples in total). There were three plots (5.6 x 8 m) for each of five organic-fertilizer treatments (single application in spring, or split application in spring and autumn, of municipal waste compost or sewage sludge, or split application of cattle slurry) and one mineral-fertilizer treatment. Maize was grown in spring–summer, and oats were grown in autumn–winter.

     

  6. Soil: Add slurry to the soil

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2006–2008 in a cereal field in the Castelo Branco region, Portugal, found similar amounts of nitrate in soils with or without added slurry. Nutrients: Similar amounts of nitrate were found in plots with and without added slurry (1–22 vs 1–10 mg NO3–N/L water). Methods: Water in the soil was collected in porous ceramic suction cup samplers (four/plot; 0.6–0.7 m depth; 50 kPa for 24 hours), whenever drainage occurred (October–November and April–May; 16 samples in total). Cattle slurry was added to three treatment plots (5.6 x 8 m), but not three control plots, in spring. Maize was grown in spring–summer, and oats were grown in autumn–winter.

     

  7. Soil: Use organic fertilizer instead of inorganic

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2006–2008 in a cereal field in the Castelo Branco region, Portugal, found similar amounts of nitrate in soils with organic fertilizer, compared to inorganic fertilizer, in most comparisons. Nutrients: Similar amounts of nitrate were found in soils with organic fertilizer, compared to inorganic fertilizer, in 78 of 80 comparisons (1–50 vs 1–31 mg NO3-N/litre water). In two of 16 comparisons, less nitrate was found in plots with cattle slurry, compared to mineral fertilizer (13 days after application: 11 vs 28 mg NO3-N/litre water; 33 days after application: 6 vs 15 mg). Methods: Water in the soil was collected in porous ceramic suction cup samplers (four/plot, 0.6–0.7 m depth, 50 kPa for 24 hours), whenever drainage occurred (October–November and April–May: 16 samples in total). There were three plots (5.6 x 8 m) for each of five organic-fertilizer treatments (single application in spring, or split application in spring and autumn, of municipal waste compost or sewage sludge, or split application of cattle slurry) and one mineral-fertilizer treatment. Maize was grown in spring–summer, and oats were grown in autumn–winter.

     

  8. Soil: Add compost to the soil

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2006–2008 in a cereal field in the Castelo Branco region, Portugal, found similar amounts of nitrate in soils with and without added compost. Nutrients: Similar amounts of nitrate were found in plots with and without added compost, in 30 of 32 comparisons (1–50 vs 1–10 mg NO3-N/L water). In two of 32 comparisons, more nitrate was found in plots with added compost, compared to plots without (33 days after single application: 16 vs 7 mg NO3-N/L water; 130 days after split application: 12 vs 1 mg). Methods: Water in the soil was collected in porous ceramic suction cup samplers (four/plot, 0.6–0.7 m depth, 50 kPa for 24 hours), whenever drainage occurred (October–November and April–May, 16 samples in total). There were three plots (5.6 x 8 m) for each of two treatments (single application of compost in spring, or split application in spring and autumn) and one control (no compost). The compost was made from municipal waste. Maize was grown in spring–summer, and oats were grown in autumn–winter.

     

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