Individual study: Application of two beet vinasse forms in soil restoration: Effects on soil properties in an arid environment in southern Spain
Tejada M., Moreno J.L., Hernandez M.T. & Garcia C. (2007) Application of two beet vinasse forms in soil restoration: Effects on soil properties in an arid environment in southern Spain. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
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Soil: Add compost to the soil
A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2001–2005 in the Guadalquivir Valley, Andalusia, Spain, found more soil organisms, more carbon dioxide, and greater stability in soils with four years of added compost, compared to soils without added compost. Soil organisms: More microbial biomass (measured as carbon) was found in soils with added compost, after 3–4 years of adding it, compared to soils without it, in five of six comparisons (351–501 vs 118–120 µg C/g dry soil), but no differences were found after 1–2 years of adding compost (171–317 vs 119–128). Greenhouse gases: More carbon dioxide was found in soils with added compost, after four years of adding it, compared to soils without added compost (1,596–2,004 vs 859 mg/kg soil). Soil erosion and aggregation: More stable soils were found in plots with added compost, after 3–4 years of adding it, compared to plots without it (data reported as log instability index), and more stable soils were also found after two years of adding compost, in two of three comparisons, but no differences were found after one year of adding it. Methods: There were three plots (10 x 7 m) for each of three treatments (5, 7.5, or 10 t/ha of organic matter, added as composted beet vinasse and crushed cotton gin waste) and one control (no compost). The compost was added in October 2001–2004. Soil samples were collected one day before the compost was added (four subsamples/plot, 0–25 cm depth).