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Individual study: Faba bean grain yield, N2 fixation, and weed infestation in a long-term tillage experiment under rainfed Mediterranean conditions

Published source details

Giambalvo D., Ruisi P., Saia S., Di M.G., Frenda A.S. & Amato G. (2012) Faba bean grain yield, N2 fixation, and weed infestation in a long-term tillage experiment under rainfed Mediterranean conditions. Plant and Soil, 360, 215-227


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Pest regulation: Use no tillage instead of reduced tillage Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, controlled study in 1991–2009 in a rainfed faba bean field in Sicily, Italy, found fewer root parasites, but more weeds, in plots with no tillage, compared to reduced tillage. Pest numbers: Fewer Orobanche crenata root parasites were found in plots with no tillage, compared to reduced tillage (7 vs 10 broomrapes/m2), but there were no differences in the weights of root parasites (1.44 vs 1.50 g). More weeds were found in plots with no tillage, compared to reduced tillage (1.84 vs 1.32 Mg/ha), but there were similar numbers of weed species (16–19 species). Methods: No tillage or reduced tillage was used on two plots each (18.5 x 20 m plots). A chisel plough (40 cm depth), a mouldboard plough (15 cm depth, in 1991–1998), and a harrow (depth not reported; before sowing) were used for reduced tillage. Herbicide (before sowing) and a seed drill were used for no tillage. In all plots, a hoe was used to control weeds (depth not reported; 1–2 times/year). Faba beans were grown in rotation with durum wheat. During durum wheat growth, herbicide was used in all plots. All plots were fertilized (46 kg P2O5/ha). Root parasites and weeds were measured in three samples/faba bean plot (four rows/sample, 3 m rows).

 

Pest regulation: Use reduced tillage in arable fields Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, controlled study in 1991–2009 in a rainfed faba bean field in Sicily, Italy, found similar numbers of pests in plots with reduced tillage, compared to conventional tillage. Pest numbers: Similar numbers of Orobanche crenata root parasites were found in plots with reduced tillage, compared to conventional tillage (10 broomrapes/m2), and the root parasites were similar in weight (1.50 vs 1.59 g). Similar amounts of weed biomass (1.3 Mg/ha) and weed species (16–19 species) were found in plots with reduced tillage or conventional tillage. Methods: Reduced tillage or conventional tillage was used on two plots each (18.5 x 20 m plots). A mouldboard plough (30 cm depth; in summer) and a harrow (depth not reported; before sowing) were used for conventional tillage. A chisel plough (40 cm depth), a mouldboard plough (15 cm depth, in 1991–1998), and a harrow (depth not reported; before sowing) were used for reduced tillage. In all plots, a hoe was used to control weeds (depth not reported; 1–2 times/year). Faba beans were grown in rotation with durum wheat. During durum wheat growth, herbicide was used in all plots. All plots were fertilized (46 kg P2O5/ha). Root parasites and weeds were measured in three samples/faba bean plot (four rows/sample, 3 m rows).

 

Crop production: Use no tillage instead of reduced tillage Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, controlled study in 1991–2009 in a rainfed faba bean field in Sicily, Italy, found higher crop yields, and no differences in crop quality, in plots with no tillage, compared to reduced tillage. Crop yield: Higher faba bean yields were found in plots with no tillage, compared to reduced tillage (2.36 vs 1.91 Mg grain/ha), but no differences in straw yields were found (3.93 vs 3.80 Mg straw/ha). Crop quality: No differences were found in faba bean seed weight (99 g/100 seeds), or number of seeds/pod (2.7 vs 2.6), in plots with no tillage, compared to reduced tillage. Methods: No tillage or reduced tillage was used on two plots each (18.5 x 20 m plots). A chisel plough (40 cm depth), a mouldboard plough (15 cm depth, in 1991–1998), and a harrow (depth not reported; before sowing) were used for reduced tillage. Herbicide (before sowing) and a seed drill were used for no tillage. In all plots, a hoe was used to control weeds (depth not reported; 1–2 times/year). Faba beans were grown in rotation with durum wheat. During durum wheat growth, herbicide was used in all plots. All plots were fertilized (46 kg P2O5/ha). Faba beans were sown in December and harvested at maturity (month not reported). Yield and quality were measured in three samples/plot (four rows/sample, 3 m rows).

 

Pest regulation: Use no tillage in arable fields Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, controlled study in 1991–2009 in a rainfed faba bean field in Sicily, Italy, found fewer root parasites, but more weeds, in plots with no tillage, compared to conventional tillage. Pest numbers: Fewer Orobanche crenata root parasites were found in plots with no tillage, compared to conventional tillage (7 vs 10 broomrapes/m2), but there was no difference in the weights of root parasites (1.44 vs 1.59 g). More weeds were found in plots with no tillage, compared to conventional tillage (1.84 vs 1.26 Mg/ha), but there were similar numbers of weed species (16–18 species). Methods: No tillage or conventional tillage was used on two plots each (18.5 x 20 m plots). A mouldboard plough (30 cm depth; in summer) and a harrow (depth not reported; before sowing) were used for conventional tillage. Herbicide (before sowing) and a seed drill were used for no tillage. In all plots, a hoe was used to control weeds (depth not reported; 1–2 times/year). Faba beans were grown in rotation with durum wheat. During durum wheat growth, herbicide was used in all plots. All plots were fertilized (46 kg P2O5/ha). Root parasites and weeds were measured in three samples/faba bean plot (four rows/sample, 3 m rows).

 

Crop production: Use no tillage in arable fields Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, controlled study in 1991–2009 in a rainfed faba bean field in Sicily, Italy, found higher crop yields, but no differences in crop quality, in plots with no tillage, compared to conventional tillage. Crop yield: Higher faba bean yields were found in plots with no tillage, compared to conventional tillage (2.36 vs 1.80 Mg grain/ha), but no differences in straw yields were found (3.93 vs 3.86 Mg straw/ha). Crop quality: No differences were found in faba bean seed weight (99 vs 98 g/100 seeds), or the number of seeds/pod (2.7 vs 2.6), in plots with no tillage, compared to conventional tillage. Methods: No tillage or conventional tillage was used on two plots each (18.5 x 20 m plots). A mouldboard plough (30 cm depth; in summer) and a harrow (depth not reported; before sowing) were used for conventional tillage. Herbicide (before sowing) and a seed drill were used for no tillage. In all plots, a hoe was used to control weeds (depth not reported; 1–2 times/year). Faba beans were grown in rotation with durum wheat. During durum wheat growth, herbicide was used in all plots. All plots were fertilized (46 kg P2O5/ha). Faba beans were sown in December and harvested at maturity (month not reported). Yield and quality were measured in three samples/plot (four rows/sample, 3 m rows).

 

Crop production: Use reduced tillage in arable fields Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, controlled study in 1991–2009 in a rainfed faba bean field in Sicily, Italy, found no differences in crop yield or crop quality in plots with reduced tillage, compared to conventional tillage. Crop yield: No differences in faba bean yields were found in plots with reduced tillage, compared to conventional tillage (1.91 vs 1.80 Mg grain/ha; 3.80 vs 3.86 Mg straw/ha). Crop quality: No differences in faba bean seed weight (99 vs 98 g/100 seeds), or numbers of seeds/pod (2.6 seeds/pod), were found in plots with reduced tillage, compared to conventional tillage. Methods: Reduced tillage or conventional tillage was used on two plots each (18.5 x 20 m plots). A mouldboard plough (30 cm depth; in summer) and a harrow (depth not reported; before sowing) were used for conventional tillage. A chisel plough (40 cm depth), a mouldboard plough (15 cm depth, in 1991–1998), and a harrow (depth not reported; before sowing) were used for reduced tillage. In all plots, a hoe was used to control weeds (depth not reported; 1–2 times/year). Faba beans were grown in rotation with durum wheat. During durum wheat growth, herbicide was used in all plots. All plots were fertilized (46 kg P2O5/ha). Faba beans were sown in December and harvested at maturity (month not reported). Yield and quality were measured in three samples/plot (four rows/sample, 3 m rows).