Study

Soil water conservation and nitrous oxide emissions from different crop sequences and fallow under Mediterranean conditions

  • Published source details Manalil S. & Flower K. (2014) Soil water conservation and nitrous oxide emissions from different crop sequences and fallow under Mediterranean conditions. Soil and Tillage Research, 143, 123-129

Actions

This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Pest regulation: Use crop rotations

Action Link
Mediterranean Farmland

Water: Use crop rotations

Action Link
Mediterranean Farmland

Pest regulation: Use no tillage instead of reduced tillage

Action Link
Mediterranean Farmland

Water: Use no tillage instead of reduced tillage

Action Link
Mediterranean Farmland

Crop production: Use crop rotations

Action Link
Mediterranean Farmland

Crop production: Use no tillage instead of reduced tillage

Action Link
Mediterranean Farmland

Soil: Use crop rotations

Action Link
Mediterranean Farmland

Soil: Use no tillage instead of reduced tillage

Action Link
Mediterranean Farmland
  1. Pest regulation: Use crop rotations

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2010–2011 in a rainfed field in Western Australia found less weed biomass in plots with a canola-wheat sequence, compared to a wheat-wheat sequence. Pest numbers: Less weed biomass was found in plots with a canola-wheat sequence, compared to a wheat-wheat sequence (36 vs 43 g/m2). Methods: Wheat or canola was grown on three plots each in 2010, and wheat was grown on all plots in 2011. Each plot was 1.4 x 40 m. Fertilizer (150 kg/ha/year) and herbicide were used on all plots. Weeds were sampled at the end of 2011.

     

  2. Water: Use crop rotations

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2010–2011 in a rainfed field in Western Australia found similar amounts of water in soils with a canola-wheat sequence or a wheat-wheat sequence. Water availability: Similar amounts of water were found in soils with or without rotations (volumetric soil moisture content: 10–19% at 0–10 cm depth during the growing season in 2011; water content: 156–177 mm in 2011). Methods: Wheat or canola was grown on three plots each, in 2010, and wheat was grown on all plots in 2011. Each plot was 1.4 x 40 m. Fertilizer (150 kg/ha/year) and herbicide were used on all plots. Soil water was measured with a neutron moisture meter (10–150 cm depth, calibrated by measurements of gravimetric water content and bulk density at the same depths) in September 2010–December 2011.

     

  3. Pest regulation: Use no tillage instead of reduced tillage

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2010–2011 in a rainfed wheat field in Australia found more weeds in plots with no tillage, compared to reduced tillage. Pest numbers: More weed biomass was found in plots with no tillage, compared to reduced tillage (36 vs 20 g/m2). Methods: No tillage or reduced tillage was used on three plots each (1.4 x 40 m plots) in 2010, when the plots were fallow. A rotary hoe (12 cm depth) was used for reduced tillage. Herbicide was used for no tillage. Wheat was grown on all plots in 2011. Fertilizer (150 kg/ha) and herbicides were used on all plots in 2011. Weeds were sampled in 2011, when the wheat was mature.

     

  4. Water: Use no tillage instead of reduced tillage

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2010–2011 in a rainfed wheat field in Australia found similar amounts of water in soils with no tillage or reduced tillage. Water availability: Similar amounts of water were found in soils with no tillage or reduced tillage (161–168 vs 163–179 mm). Methods: No tillage or reduced tillage was used on three plots each (1.4 x 40 m plots) in 2010, when the plots were fallow. A rotary hoe (12 cm depth) was used for reduced tillage. Herbicide was used for no tillage. Wheat was grown on all plots in 2011. Fertilizer (150 kg/ha) and herbicides were used on all plots in 2011. Soil water was measured with a neutron moisture meter (1.5 m depth, between September 2010 and December 2011).

     

  5. Crop production: Use crop rotations

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2010–2011 in a rainfed field in Western Australia, found similar wheat yields in plots preceded by canola or wheat. Crop yield: Similar wheat yields were found in plots preceded by canola or wheat (2,500 vs 2,600 kg/ha). Methods: Wheat or canola was grown on three plots each, in 2010, and wheat was grown on all plots in 2011. Each plot was 1.4 x 40 m. Fertilizer (150 kg/ha/year) and herbicide were used on all plots. Yield was measured in 2011.

     

  6. Crop production: Use no tillage instead of reduced tillage

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2010–2011 in a rainfed wheat field in Australia found similar crop yields in plots with no tillage or reduced tillage. Crop yield: Similar wheat yields were found in plots with no tillage or reduced tillage (2,600 kg/ha). Methods: No tillage or reduced tillage was used on three plots each (1.4 x 40 m plots) in 2010, when the plots were fallow. A rotary hoe (12 cm depth) was used for reduced tillage. Herbicide was used for no tillage. Wheat was grown on all plots in 2011. Fertilizer (150 kg/ha) and herbicides were used on all plots in 2011.

     

  7. Soil: Use crop rotations

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2010–2011 in a rainfed field in Western Australia found more nitrogen in plots with canola-wheat or wheat-wheat sequences. Nutrients: More nitrogen was found in plots with a canola-wheat sequence, compared to a wheat-wheat sequence, in one of four comparisons (after planting: 106 vs 93 kg total N/ha). Greenhouse gases: Similar nitrous oxide emissions were found in plots with different crop sequences (0.03–0.18 g/ha/hour). Methods: Wheat or canola was grown on three plots each, in 2010, and wheat was grown on all plots in 2011. Each plot was 1.4 x 40 m. Fertilizer (150 kg/ha/year) and herbicide were used on all plots. Soil samples were collected in September 2010–December 2011 (0–150 cm depth). Nitrous oxide was measured in closed chambers, five times in May–October 2011 (250 mm diameter, 325 mm height, two chambers/plot, one hour/plot).

     

  8. Soil: Use no tillage instead of reduced tillage

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2010–2011 in an irrigated wheat field in Western Australia found similar greenhouse-gas emissions in soils with no tillage or reduced tillage. Greenhouse gases: Similar nitrous oxide emissions were found in soils with no tillage or reduced tillage (0.04 g ha/hour). Methods: No tillage or reduced tillage was used on three plots each (1.4 x 40 m plots) in 2010, when the plots were fallow. A rotary hoe (12 cm depth) was used for reduced tillage. Herbicide was used for no tillage. Wheat was grown on all plots in 2011. Fertilizer (150 kg/ha) and herbicides were used on all plots in 2011. Nitrous oxide was sampled in closed chambers (two chambers/plot; one hour/sample; five sample dates/plot).

     

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