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Individual study: Long-term effects of tillage systems and rotations on soil structural stability and organic carbon stratification in semiarid central Spain

Published source details

Hernanz J.L., López R., Navarrete L. & Sánchez-Girón V. (2002) Long-term effects of tillage systems and rotations on soil structural stability and organic carbon stratification in semiarid central Spain. Soil & Tillage Research, 66, 129-141


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Soil: Use crop rotations Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1983–1996 in a rainfed wheat field in the Henares river valley, Spain, found lower stability in soils with crop rotations, compared to soils without crop rotations, in some comparisons. Organic matter: Similar amounts of organic carbon were found in soils with or without crop rotations (42.3 vs 40.4 Mg C/ha). Soil erosion and aggregation: Lower soil stability was found in soils with crop rotations, compared to soils without crop rotations, in three of four comparisons (in 1–2 mm pre-wetted soil aggregates: 76% vs 79% water stable; in 1–2 mm air-dried soil aggregates: 5.5% vs 6.1%; in 4.38 mm air–dried soil aggregates: 2% vs 7%). Methods: Wheat was grown continuously or in rotation with vetch (12 plots each, 20 x 30 m plots). Fertilizer and post–emergence herbicide were used on all plots. Soil samples were collected in June 1996 (plots with rotations) or July 1996 (plots without rotations), with four samples/subplot. Organic carbon was measured at 0–40 cm depth. Aggregate stability was measured at 0–30 cm depth.

 

Soil: Use no tillage instead of reduced tillage Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1983–1996 in a rainfed wheat field in the Henares river valley, Spain, found that tillage had inconsistent effects on soil stability. Soil erosion and aggregation: Lower soil stability was found in plots with no tillage, compared to reduced tillage, in one of four comparisons (1–2 mm pre-wetted soil aggregates: 76.3 vs 77.8% water stable), but higher stability was found in two of four comparisons (1–2 mm air-dried soil aggregates: 11.0 vs 3.5% water stable; 4.38 mm air-dried soil aggregates: 12 vs 2%). Methods: No tillage or reduced tillage was used on four plots each. Each plot had two subplots (20 x 30 m, with or without crop rotation). A chisel plough (20 cm depth, in autumn) and a tine cultivator (10–15 cm depth, two passes, in spring) were used for reduced tillage. A seed drill and pre-emergence herbicide were used for no tillage. Fertilizer and post-emergence herbicide were used on all plots. Soil samples were collected in June or July 1996 (0–30 cm, four samples/subplot).

 

Crop production: Use crop rotations Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1983–1996 in a rainfed wheat field in the Henares river valley, Spain, found similar wheat yields in plots with or without crop rotations. Crop yield: Similar wheat yields were found in plots with or without crop rotations (2.5–2.7 vs 2.5–2.8 Mg/ha). Methods: Wheat was grown in continuous monoculture or in rotation with vetch (12 plots each, 20 x 30 m plots). Fertilizer and post–emergence herbicide were used on all plots. Wheat was harvested at maturity (July 1996), and yield was measured in two strips/subplot (1.4 x 30 m strips).

Soil: Use reduced tillage in arable fields Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1983–1996 in a rainfed wheat field in the Henares river valley, Spain, found no differences in soil stability between plots with reduced tillage or conventional tillage. Soil erosion and aggregation: No differences in soil stability were found between plots with reduced tillage or conventional tillage (pre-wetted soil aggregates: 78–89% were water-stable; air-dried soil aggregates: 1–4% were water-stable). Methods: Conventional tillage or reduced tillage was used on four plots each. Each plot had two subplots (20 x 30 m, with or without crop rotations). A mouldboard plough (30 cm depth) was used for conventional tillage, in autumn. A chisel plough (20 cm depth) was used for reduced tillage, in autumn. A tine cultivator (10–15 cm depth, two passes) was used for both conventional and reduced tillage, in spring. Fertilizer and post-emergence herbicide were used on all plots. Soil samples were collected in June or July 1996 (0–30 cm, four samples/subplot).

 

Crop production: Use no tillage instead of reduced tillage Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1983–1996 in a rainfed wheat field in the Henares river valley, Spain, found similar crop yields in plots with no tillage or reduced tillage. Crop yield: Similar wheat yields were found in plots with no tillage or reduced tillage (2.7 vs 2.6 Mg/ha). Methods: No tillage or reduced tillage was used on four plots each. Each plot had two subplots (20 x 30 m, with or without crop rotations). A chisel plough (20 cm depth, in autumn) and a tine cultivator (10–15 cm depth, two passes, in spring) were used for reduced tillage. A seed drill and pre-emergence herbicide were used for no tillage. Fertilizer and post-emergence herbicide were used on all plots. Wheat was harvested at maturity (July 1996), and yield was measured in two strips/subplot (1.4 x 30 m strips).

 

Crop production: Use reduced tillage in arable fields Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1983–1996 in a rainfed wheat field in the Henares river valley, Spain, found similar crop yields in plots with reduced tillage or conventional tillage. Crop yield: Similar wheat yields were found in plots with reduced tillage or conventional tillage (2.6 vs 2.5 Mg/ha). Methods: Conventional tillage or reduced tillage was used on four plots each. Each plot had two subplots (20 x 30 m, with or without crop rotations). A mouldboard plough (30 cm depth) was used for conventional tillage, in autumn. A chisel plough (20 cm depth) was used for reduced tillage, in autumn. A tine cultivator (10–15 cm depth, two passes) was used for both conventional and reduced tillage, in spring. Fertilizer and post-emergence herbicide were used on all plots. Wheat was harvested at maturity (July 1996), and yield was measured in two strips/subplot (1.4 x 30 m strips).

 

Crop production: Use no tillage in arable fields Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1983–1996 in a rainfed wheat field in the Henares river valley, Spain, found similar crop yields in plots with no tillage or conventional tillage. Crop yield: Similar wheat yields were found in plots with no tillage or conventional tillage (2.7 vs 2.5 Mg/ha). Methods: No tillage or conventional tillage was used on four plots each. Each plot had two subplots (20 x 30 m, with or without crop rotation). A mouldboard plough (30 cm depth, in autumn) and a tine cultivator (10–15 cm depth, two passes, in spring) were used for conventional tillage. A seed drill and pre-emergence herbicide were used for no tillage. Fertilizer and post-emergence herbicide were used on all plots. Wheat was harvested at maturity (July 1996), and yield was measured in two strips/subplot (1.4 x 30 m strips).

 

Soil: Use no tillage in arable fields Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1983–1996 in a rainfed wheat field in the Henares river valley, Spain, found that tillage had inconsistent effects on soil stability. Soil erosion and aggregation: Lower soil stability was found in plots with no tillage, compared to conventional tillage, in one of four comparisons (1–2 mm pre-wetted soil aggregates: 76.3% vs 78.4% water stable), but higher stability was found in two of four comparisons (1–2 mm air-dried soil aggregates: 11% vs 2.9% water stable; 4.38 mm air-dried soil aggregates: 12% vs 1%). Methods: No tillage or conventional tillage was used on four plots each. Each plot had two subplots (20 x 30 m, with or without crop rotation). A mouldboard plough (30 cm depth, in autumn) and a tine cultivator (10–15 cm depth, two passes, in spring) were used for conventional tillage. A seed drill and pre-emergence herbicide were used for no tillage. Fertilizer and post-emergence herbicide were used on all plots. Soil samples were collected in June or July 1996 (0–30 cm, four samples/subplot).