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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Effects of Various Vineyard Floor Management Techniques on Weed Community Shifts and Grapevine Water Relations

Published source details

Steenwerth K.L., Calderón-Orellana A., Hanifin R.C., Storm C. & McElrone A.J. (2016) Effects of Various Vineyard Floor Management Techniques on Weed Community Shifts and Grapevine Water Relations. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 67, 153-162


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Pest regulation: Plant or maintain ground cover in orchards or vineyards Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2008–2010 in an irrigated vineyard in the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, found less weed diversity in plots with cover crops between the vine rows, compared to resident vegetation. Implementation options: Less weed diversity was found in plots with cover crops between the vine rows, compared to resident vegetation (6–7 vs 10 species; other data on diversity reported as indices). Similar weed diversity was found in plots with different mixtures of cover crops (6–7 species). Methods: Cover crops (2.5 m width) were grown in the alleys between the vine rows (3.1 m width) on 16 plots (two alleys/plot, 190 vines/row), and resident vegetation was allowed to grow on 8 plots, over the winter. There were two combinations of cover crops (oats only, or oats and legumes, seeded in November, on 8 plots each). All plots were mown in spring and tilled (15–20 cm depth) in spring, summer, and autumn. Herbicide was used to control weeds in the vine rows (50 cm width), but not in the alleys. Weeds were sampled in the alleys, in April each year, at 4 m intervals on 40 m transects.

 

Crop production: Plant or maintain ground cover in orchards or vineyards Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2008–2010 in an irrigated vineyard in the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA (same study as (10)), found lower titratable acidity in grapes from plots with seeded cover crops between the vine rows, compared to resident vegetation. Implementation options: Grapes of similar quality were found in plots with cover crops or resident vegetation between the vine rows (23–25 oBrix; pH 3.3–3.6; 107–135 g/100 grapes; 25–33 g sugar/100 grapes), except that lower titratable acidity was found in grapes from plots with cover crops, in one of three years (2008: 5.7–5.9 vs 6.8 mg/L). Methods: Cover crops (2.5 m width) were grown in the alleys between the vine rows (3.1 m width) on 16 plots (two alleys/plot, 190 vines/row), and resident vegetation was allowed to grow on 8 plots, over the winter. There were two combinations of cover crops (oats only, or oats and legumes, seeded in November, on 8 plots each). All plots were mown in spring and tilled (15–20 cm depth) in spring, summer, and autumn. Herbicide was used to control weeds in the vine rows (50 cm width), but not in the alleys. Vines were drip-irrigated (60–70% of evapotranspiration).

Water: Plant or maintain ground cover in orchards or vineyards Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2008–2010 in an irrigated vineyard in the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, found that grape vines used similar amounts of water, and soils had similar water contents, in plots with cover crops or resident vegetation between the vine rows. Implementation options: Similar amounts of water were used by grape vines in plots with cover crops or resident vegetation between the vine rows (midday stem water potential: –1.6 to –0.6 MPa). Similar amounts of water were found in soils between the vine rows with cover crops or resident vegetation, in most comparisons (soil water content: 15–34%). Methods: Cover crops were grown in the alleys (2.5 m width) between the vine rows (3.1 m width) on 16 plots (two alleys/plot, 190 vines/plot), and resident vegetation was allowed to grow on 8 plots, over the winter. There were two combinations of cover crops (oats only, or oats and legumes, seeded in November, on 8 plots each). All plots were mown in spring and tilled (15–20 cm depth) in spring, summer, and autumn. Herbicide was used to control weeds in the vine rows (50 cm width). Vines were drip-irrigated (60–70% of evapotranspiration). Soil water content was measured every 1–2 weeks, and stem water potential was measured every 2–3 weeks, during the growing season in 2008–2009 (frequency domain reflectometry, 0–110 cm depth).