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Individual study: Soil carbon dioxide and methane fluxes as affected by tillage and N fertilization in dryland conditions

Published source details

Plaza-Bonilla D., Cantero-Martínez C., Bareche J., Arrúe J. L. & Álvaro-Fuentes J. (2014) Soil carbon dioxide and methane fluxes as affected by tillage and N fertilization in dryland conditions. Plant and Soil, 381, 111-131


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Crop production: Add slurry to the soil Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2010–2013 in rainfed barley fields in Spain found higher crop yields in plots with added slurry, compared to plots without it. Crop yield: Higher barley yields were found in plots with added slurry (4,657–5,335 vs 2,359 kg/ha). Implementation options: Lower barley yields were found in plots with less slurry, compared to more slurry (4,657 vs 5,335 kg/ha). Methods: Plots (40 x 12 m) had added slurry (75 or 150 kg N/ha) or no fertilizer (three plots for each). Plots had conventional tillage (mouldboard plough: 25 cm depth; cultivator: 15 cm depth) or no tillage. Barley was harvested in June.

 

Water: Add slurry to the soil Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2010–2013 in rainfed barley fields in Spain found similar amounts of water-filled pore space in plots with or without added slurry. Water availability: Similar amounts of water-filled pore space were found in plots with or without added slurry (25–26% vs 24%). Implementation options: Similar amounts of water-filled pore space were found in plots with less or more slurry (25% vs 26%). Methods: Plots (40 x 12 m) had pig slurry (75 or 150 kg N/ha) or no fertilizer (three plots each). Plots had conventional tillage (mouldboard plough: 25 cm depth; cultivator: 15 cm depth) or no tillage. Soil samples (0–5 cm depth) were collected every 2–3 weeks in 2011–2013.

 

Water: Use organic fertilizer instead of inorganic Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2010–2013 in a rainfed barley field in Spain found similar amounts of water-filled pore space in plots with organic or inorganic fertilizer. Water availability: Similar amounts of water-filled pore space were found in plots with organic or inorganic fertilizer (19–33% vs 16–33%). Methods: Plots (inorganic: 50 x 6 m or 40 x 6 m; organic: 40 x 12 m) had inorganic fertilizer (60, 75, 120, or 150 kg N/ha) or organic fertilizer (75 or 150 kg N/ha) (three plots for each). Plots had conventional tillage (mouldboard plough: 25 cm depth; cultivator: 15 cm depth) or no tillage. Soil samples were collected at the end of the experiment (two samples/plot; 0–75 cm depth).

 

Crop production: Use organic fertilizer instead of inorganic Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2010–2013 in rainfed barley fields in Spain found higher barley yields in plots with organic fertilizer, compared to inorganic fertilizer. Crop yield: Higher barley yields were found in plots with organic fertilizer, compared to inorganic fertilizer, in seven of 12 comparisons (2,755–5,335 vs 1,308–3,885 kg/ha). Methods: Plots (inorganic: 50 x 6 m or 40 x 6 m; organic: 40 x 12 m) had inorganic fertilizer (60, 75, 120, or 150 kg N/ha) or organic fertilizer (75 or 150 kg N/ha) (three plots for each). Plots had conventional tillage (mouldboard plough: 25 cm depth; cultivator: 15 cm depth) or no tillage. Barley was harvested in June.

 

Soil: Add slurry to the soil Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2010–2013 in rainfed barley fields in Spain (same study as (13)), found higher carbon dioxide emissions in plots with added slurry, compared to plots without it. Organic matter: Similar amounts of carbon were found in plots with or without added slurry (98–110 vs 83–96 Mg/ha). Greenhouse gases: Similar amounts of methane were absorbed by plots with or without added slurry (–1 vs –2 kg C/ha). Higher carbon dioxide emissions were found in plots with added slurry (4,294–4,586 vs 3,227 kg C/ha). Implementation options: Similar amounts of carbon were found in plots with less or more slurry (98–110 vs 100–107 Mg/ha). Similar amounts of methane were absorbed by plots with less or more slurry (–1 vs –2 kg C/ha). Similar carbon dioxide emissions were found in plots with less or more slurry (4,294 vs 4,586 kg C/ha). Methods: Plots (40 x 12 m) had pig slurry (75 or 150 kg N/ha) or no fertilizer (three plots for each). Plots had conventional tillage (mouldboard plough: 25 cm depth; cultivator: 15 cm depth) or no tillage. Soil samples were collected at the end of the experiment (two samples/plot; 0–75 cm depth).

 

Water: Use no tillage in arable fields Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1996–2013 in two rainfed barley fields in northeast Spain found more water in soils with no tillage, compared to conventional tillage. Water availability: More water was found in soils with no tillage, compared to conventional tillage (32–44% vs 18–20% water-filled pore space). Methods: No tillage or conventional tillage was used on three plots each, in each of two fields (from 2010–2013 in the short-term field, and from 1996–2013 in the long-term field; plots size not clearly reported). A mouldboard plough (25 cm depth) and a cultivator (15 cm depth) were used for conventional tillage in the long-term field, and a chisel plough was used in the short-term field (depth not reported), in September–October. For no tillage, the residues were chopped and spread, and pre-emergence herbicide was used. Some plots were fertilized (0–150 kg N/ha). Soil samples (0–5 cm depth) were collected every 2–3 weeks in 2011–2013 (2011–2012 in the short-term field).

 

Soil: Use organic fertilizer instead of inorganic Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2010–2013 in rainfed barley fields in Spain (same study as (21)) found higher carbon dioxide emissions in plots with organic fertilizer, compared to inorganic fertilizer. Organic matter: Similar amounts of carbon were found in soils with organic and inorganic fertilizers (92–110 vs 87–101 Mg/ha). Greenhouse gases: Similar uptake of methane was found in plots with organic fertilizer compared to inorganic fertilizer (–3 to –1 vs –4 to –1 kg C/ha). Higher carbon dioxide emissions were found in plots with organic fertilizer, compared to inorganic fertilizer, in two of 12 comparisons (4,586 vs 3,575–3,802 kg C/ha). Methods: Plots (inorganic: 50 x 6 m or 40 x 6 m; organic: 40 x 12 m) had inorganic fertilizer (60, 75, 120, or 150 kg N/ha) or organic fertilizer (pig slurry: 75 or 150 kg N/ha) (three plots for each). Plots had conventional tillage (mouldboard plough: 25 cm depth; cultivator: 15 cm depth) or no tillage. Soil samples were collected at the end of the experiment (two samples/plot; 0–75 cm depth).

 

Crop production: Use no tillage in arable fields Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1996–2013 in two rainfed barley fields in northeast Spain found higher crop yields in plots with no tillage, compared to conventional tillage. Crop yield: Higher barley yields were found in plots with no tillage, compared to conventional tillage (1,554–5,692 vs 246–2,263 kg/ha). Methods: No tillage or conventional tillage was used on three plots each, in each of two fields (from 2010–2013 in the short-term field, and from 1996–2013 in the long-term field; plots size not clearly reported). A mouldboard plough (25 cm depth) and a cultivator (15 cm depth) were used for conventional tillage in the long-term field, and a chisel plough was used in the short-term field (depth not reported), in September–October. For no tillage, the residues were chopped and spread, and pre-emergence herbicide was used. Some plots were fertilized (0–150 kg N/ha). Crop yield was measured in 2011 (short-term field) and 2011–2013 (long-term field; the reported yield was the sum of three years).

 

Soil: Use no tillage in arable fields Mediterranean Farmland

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1996–2013 in two rainfed barley fields in northeast Spain (same study as (36)) found that tillage had inconsistent effects on greenhouse gases. Organic matter: Similar amounts of organic carbon were found in soils with no tillage or conventional tillage (short-term field: 96 vs 99 Mg/ha). Greenhouse gases: More methane was absorbed by soils with no tillage, compared to conventional tillage, in one of two comparisons (long-term experiment: –2.4 vs –1.1 kg C/ha), but less was absorbed in one of two comparisons (short-term experiment: –1.1 vs –2.7 kg C/ha). More carbon dioxide was emitted from soils with no tillage, compared to conventional tillage (3,985–4,480 vs 2,611–3,313 kg C/ha). Methods: No tillage or conventional tillage was used on three plots each, in each of two fields (2010–2013 in the short-term field, and 1996–2013 in the long-term field; plots size not clearly reported). A mouldboard plough (25 cm depth) and a cultivator (15 cm depth) were used for conventional tillage in the long-term field, and a chisel plough was used in the short-term field (depth not reported), in September–October. For no tillage, the residues were chopped and spread, and pre-emergence herbicide was used. Some plots were fertilized (0–150 kg N/ha). Soil samples were collected in June 2013 in the short-term field (0–75 cm depth). Greenhouse-gas samples were collected every 2–3 weeks in 2011–2013, in the long-term field, and 2011–2012 in the short-term field (closed chambers, 15 mL samples, 0, 30, and 60 minutes after closing).