Individual study: Long-term effects of deer browsing: composition, structure and productivity in a northeastern Minnesota old-growth forest
White M.A. (2012) Long-term effects of deer browsing: composition, structure and productivity in a northeastern Minnesota old-growth forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 269, 222-228
This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.
Use wire fencing to exclude large native herbivores
A replicated, controlled study in 1987-2008 in boreal forest in Minnesota, USA (White 2012) found that excluding deer and snowshoe hares Lepus americanus increased tree density, basal area and biomass. Increases were higher in exclusion plots for tree density (unfenced: 81%, 1,617 to 3,219 /ha; exclusion: 274%, 1,375 to 4,836 /ha), basal area (unfenced: 50%, 15 to 23 m2/ha; exclusion: 125%, 11 to 25 m2/ha) and biomass (unfenced: 37%, 72 to 98 tons/ha; exclusion: 95%, 53 to 104 tons/ha). Data werecollected in 1991 and 2008 in three exclusion (fenced to exclude deer and snowshoe hares in 1987-1990) and three control (unfenced) plots (0.25/ha).