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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Long-term effects of deer browsing: composition, structure and productivity in a northeastern Minnesota old-growth forest

Published source details

White M.A. (2012) Long-term effects of deer browsing: composition, structure and productivity in a northeastern Minnesota old-growth forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 269, 222-228


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Use wire fencing to exclude large native herbivores Forest Conservation

A replicated, controlled study in 1987-2008 in boreal forest in Minnesota, USA (White 2012) found that excluding deer and snowshoe hares Lepus americanus increased tree density, basal area and biomass. Increases were higher in exclusion plots for tree density (unfenced: 81%, 1,617 to 3,219 /ha; exclusion: 274%, 1,375 to 4,836 /ha), basal area (unfenced: 50%, 15 to 23 m2/ha; exclusion: 125%, 11 to 25 m2/ha) and biomass (unfenced: 37%, 72 to 98 tons/ha; exclusion: 95%, 53 to 104 tons/ha). Data werecollected in 1991 and 2008 in three exclusion (fenced to exclude deer and snowshoe hares in 1987-1990) and three control (unfenced) plots (0.25/ha).